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Weekly Review of Readings #3 – Week 8 Question 1 – Within the article, the authors find that incarceration is not a specific deterrent of crime, due to its ineffectiveness of addressing the underlying causes of recidivism (Cullen et al., 2011). Although, advocates assume that the punishment of removing the offender from the community and placing into a prison will enhance the deterrence, some criminologist are of the opposing view (Cullen et al., 2011). As stated within the research provided, the study indicated that the cutting of family ties, increases offenders risk of association with other criminals within the prison, this is known as criminogenic risk factor (Cullen et al., 2011). Question 2 – Researchers use of deterrence theory to enable the ability to anticipate the effects of incarceration on offenders, and the likelihood of increased tendency which can lead to increased recidivism (Cullen et al., 2011). The implication of the criminogenic risk factors sees the article demonstrating how sentencing offenders to prison should be used a last resort opposed to the first option (Cullen et al., 2011). With this information considered, the authors recommend community-based and rehabilitation programs to be implemented in lieu of imprisonment. Cullen (2011) notes a survey that was conducted in 2008, which reveals how offenders would more likely dread a long intensive community-based punishment over a short prison sentence. Often these community-based programs involve a great financial cost to an offender, as well as considerable amount of effort required to complete the programs. From a theoretical perspective, generating a cost association with crime, can encourage a reduction in recidivism (Cullen et al., 2011). Furthermore, the article touches on how mandating high-risk offenders to attend evidence- based rehabilitation programs, can demonstrate reduced recidivism. These appropriate programs Page 5 of 8
have indicated when used in the correct manner, provide an important tool in protecting the public’s safety, once offenders have been released from incarceration (Cullen et al., 2011). Page 6 of 8
Weekly Review of Readings #4 – Week 11 Question 1 – The study conducted by Bernburg and Krohn (2003) aimed to measure how official intervention amongst adolescence affected the involvement of delinquency and deviance in early adulthood.
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