Disorganized attachment (5-10%) = separation and return confuse the baby; reactions in contradictory ways (e.g. seeking proximity to the returned mom, but not looking at her) vi. Consequences of attachment 1. Secure attachment successful/confident relationships 2. Insecure attachment anxiety/aggression in relationships c. What determines attachment? i. Bidirectional process = secure attachment results from predictable, sensitive and responsibe parenting ii. Influence of temperament iii. Cultural factors 1. Responsiveness a. Kenya mothers respond to vocalizations/behaviors indicating stress, with the goal of soothing and quieting infant, rather than arousing infants to initiate a playful interaction
b. Japanese caregivers works actively to empathize with the infant in order to decrease need for outright communication for distress 2. Ethnotheories = beliefs concerning the nature and need for children, parental and community goals for rearing, and caretaker believes about effective techniques 3. Parenting goals 2. Emerging Emotions a. Experiencing & expressiong emotion i. Developing emotions 1. Newborns—pleasure and distress 2. 2 to 3 months—social smiles 3. Cultural differences a. Cultural-specific of the 2 month shift—differences in increase in social smiling 4. 4 to 8 months—more sophisticated negative emotions expressed facially a. Sadness/anger b. Fear/distress c. Wariness of new objects/people arises i. Occurs once children start to locomote ii.
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- Fall '14
- secure attachment, secure attachment results, Attachment growth, True attachment