The Lend-Lease Bill allowed for lending or leasing American arms to the reeling democracies so postwar debts could be avoided. By sending guns and not men, in a way Roosevelt was helping the democratic forces of the war. The bill would send a limitless supply of arms to the victims of aggression, who in turn would finish the job and keep the war on their side of the Atlantic. Accounts would be settled by returning the used weapons or their equivalents to the United States when the war was ended. By 1945, America had sent about $50 billion worth of arms and material to the Allies. However, the bill was controversial. Isolationists and anti-Roosevelt Republicans opposed the bill, as it marked the abandonment of any pretense of neutrality or isolationism.15. What was the reaction in America to the Nazi attack on the Soviet Union?
In 1941, Hitler broke his pact with Russia and attacked the Soviets. Roosevelt reacted immediately; he assisted and backed up the Soviets by making some military supplies available. He supplied $1 billion of supplies in the lend-lease program to aid Russia. With the surrender of the Soviet Union a very real possibility, the Atlantic Conference was held in August 1941 and the Atlantic Charter was formed. The Charter was accepted by Roosevelt and Churchill of Britain and endorsed by the Soviet Union later that year. The charter outlined the aspirations of the democracies for a better world at war’s end. It promised that there would be no territorial changes contrary to the wishes of the inhabitants (self-determination). It further affirmed the right of a people to choose their own form of government and, in particular, to regain the governments abolished by the dictators. It also declared for disarmament and a peace of security, or anew League of Nations.16. How did America's implementation of the Lend-Lease policy bring us closer to war? America’s implementation of the Lend-Lease policy brought us to war as Germany submarines attacked American warships bringing the arms to Britain. Lend-lease shipments of arms to Britain on British ships were bound to be sunk by German submarines. Because of this, U.S. warships needed to escort the British ships, as Britain simply did not have enough destroyers. Roosevelt decided to create convoys and he issued orders to the navy to escort lend-lease shipments as far as Iceland. Inevitable clashes with submarines ensued on the Iceland run. A German submarine attacked the U.S. destroyer Greer. Roosevelt then proclaimed a shoot-on-sight policy. The ships Kearny and Reuben James also engaged inbattle with the German submarines. These attacks made the American public want to pull out of neutrality.Congress, responding to public pressures, recalled the Neutrality Act. Merchant ships could then be legally armed and could enter combat zones with munitions for Britain.
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