1957 Sputnik launched Russians have the first satellite that orbits the earth

1957 sputnik launched russians have the first

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1957 - Sputnik launched. Russians have the first satellite that orbits the earth. U.S. panics and starts to hyper-fund space research and science education. 1958 - Soviets develop the first ICBM. Khrushchev talks about “peaceful co-existence” but also said “we will bury you.” 1959 - Fidel Castro leads revolution against Battista in Cuba 1960s - Oil replaces coal as major source of European energy. 1961 - Bay of Pigs. U.S.A.'s botched attempt to invade Cuba and toss out Fidel Castro. (He's still there.) - Berlin War erected to keep East Berliners in East Berlin. - Beginning of American advisors in Viet Nam 1962 - Cuban Missile Crisis. U.S.A. blockades Cuba to keep further Russian armaments out. U.S. and U.S.S.R. were "eye ball to eye ball and they blinked." (Dean Acheson) - Beginning of Chinese-Soviet Rift 1964 - Khrushchev falls. Succeeded by Leonid Brezhnev. "Brezhnev Doctrine" asserts that the Soviets can intervene to protect socialism and socialist governments against pro-capitalist change. The "Thaw" ends, nevertheless Brezhnev advocates "peaceful co-existence." 1965 - The first Marines go to Viet Nam 1968 - "Prague Spring" Alexander Dubcek leads Czech communists in liberalization, Westernization. Crushed by Soviet tanks. NATIONALISM! 1972 - SALT I "Detente" begins here. The goal is still "peaceful co-existence" 1973 - 3rd Arab-Israel War. - Last troops withdraw from Viet Nam 1974 - Western European economic boom winds down. Arab control of oil does not help. Beginning of worldwide recession. 1975 - Helsinki Accords. The high point of detente. It ratifies European boundaries after WWII and provides for
105 } surveillance on human rights. - Pol Pot takes over Cambodia, creates the Killing Fields 1979 - SALT II concluded between U.S.S.R. and U.S.A. but not ratified by Congress. - Soviets invade Afghanistan. Detente abates, relations between the US and USSR become strained. 1979-1989 - War in Afghanistan between Afghans and U.S.S.R. Soviet Union is trying to prop up a communist regime. Ends detente. Soviet Union has 100,000 troops there until its ignominious withdrawal in 1989. Messes up the Soviet economy. It is the Soviet Union's Vietnam War. 1980-1981 – Beginning of Solidarity. Lech Walensa leads striking workers at Lenin Shipyards in Gdansk (formerly Danzig.) Jaruzelski declares martial law. NATIONALISM. 1982 - Brezhnev dies. Followed in rapid succession by Andropov (former head of the KGB) and Chernenko. Finally Gorbachev takes over and rules from 1985-1991. 1984 - President Jimmy Carter decides to keep the U.S.A. out of the winter Olympics in Moscow to protest Soviet aggression in Afghanistan. 1985 - Gorbachev takes over the U.S.S.R. He has two ground-breaking policies: 1. glasnost, "openness" in public discussion and culture. 2. perestroika, the fight against economic stagnation. 1988 - U.S.S.R. has constitutional reforms. A new national legislature is created. Multi-candidate elections to replace the one party slate.

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