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1957 - Sputnik launched. Russians have the first satellite that orbits the earth. U.S. panics and starts to hyper-fundspace research and science education.1958 - Soviets develop the first ICBM.Khrushchev talks about “peaceful co-existence” but also said “we will bury you.”1959 - Fidel Castro leads revolution against Battista in Cuba1960s - Oil replaces coal as major source of European energy.1961 - Bay of Pigs. U.S.A.'s botched attempt to invade Cuba and toss out Fidel Castro. (He's still there.)- Berlin War erected to keep East Berliners in East Berlin.- Beginning of American advisors in Viet Nam1962 - Cuban Missile Crisis. U.S.A. blockades Cuba to keep further Russian armaments out. U.S. and U.S.S.R.were "eye ball to eye ball and they blinked." (Dean Acheson)-Beginning of Chinese-Soviet Rift1964 - Khrushchev falls. Succeeded by Leonid Brezhnev. "Brezhnev Doctrine" asserts that the Soviets can interveneto protect socialism and socialist governments against pro-capitalist change. The "Thaw" ends, neverthelessBrezhnev advocates "peaceful co-existence."1965 - The first Marines go to Viet Nam1968 - "Prague Spring" Alexander Dubcek leads Czech communists in liberalization, Westernization. Crushed bySoviet tanks. NATIONALISM!1972 - SALT I "Detente" begins here. The goal is still "peaceful co-existence"1973 - 3rd Arab-Israel War.- Last troops withdraw from Viet Nam1974 - Western European economic boom winds down. Arab control of oil does not help.Beginning of worldwide recession.1975 - Helsinki Accords. The high point of detente. It ratifies European boundaries after WWII and provides for
105}surveillance on human rights.-Pol Pot takes over Cambodia, creates the Killing Fields1979 - SALT II concluded between U.S.S.R. and U.S.A. but not ratified by Congress.- Soviets invade Afghanistan. Detente abates, relations between the US and USSR become strained.1979-1989 - War in Afghanistan between Afghans and U.S.S.R. Soviet Union is trying to prop up a communistregime. Ends detente. Soviet Union has 100,000 troops there until its ignominious withdrawal in 1989. Messes upthe Soviet economy. It is the Soviet Union's Vietnam War.1980-1981 – Beginning of Solidarity. Lech Walensa leads striking workers at Lenin Shipyards in Gdansk (formerlyDanzig.) Jaruzelski declares martial law. NATIONALISM.1982 - Brezhnev dies. Followed in rapid succession by Andropov (former head of the KGB) and Chernenko. FinallyGorbachev takes over and rules from 1985-1991.1984 - President Jimmy Carter decides to keep the U.S.A. out of the winter Olympics in Moscow to protest Sovietaggression in Afghanistan.1985 - Gorbachev takes over the U.S.S.R. He has two ground-breaking policies: 1. glasnost, "openness" in publicdiscussion and culture. 2. perestroika, the fight against economic stagnation. 1988 - U.S.S.R. has constitutional reforms. A new national legislature is created. Multi-candidate elections toreplace the one party slate.