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Deep vein thrombosis is potentially life threatening because of the likelihood of embolization to the pulmonary circulation. oIt is treated aggressively with the administration of anticoagulants.CHAPTER 16: ALTERATIONS IN BLOOD PRESSURECARDIAC OUTPUT: CO = SV (stroke volume) x HR (heart rate)↑HR + ↑SV= ↑COExercise: ↑HR=↑COSleep: ↓HR= ↓COPhysically Fit: ↑SVMI:1stChange: ↓SV= ↓ CO2ndChange: ↑ HR to compensateIf unable to compensateDEATHBLOOD PRESSURE (BP): BP=CO x PR↑CO+ ↑PR= ↑BPSpeed up the heart by activating Beta 1 receptors (SNS)Vagus nerve stimulation slows down the heart (PSNS)When heart muscles contractSV influences systole (heart contraction) SVR influence diastole (heart relaxation)PRIMARY HYPERTENSION:Cause: Primary hypertension, also called essential hypertension, does not have a clearly identifiable known etiology and is therefore an idiopathic disorder.Primary hypertension has one of several presentations: Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) in which the systolic BP is 140 mm Hg and the diastolic pressure remains <90 mm Hg.Isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH) in which the diastolic pressure is 90 mm Hg with a systolic pressure of <140 mm Hg; And the combination of systolic and diastolic hypertension (SDH) occurring when both systolic and diastolic pressures exceed prehypertension values.Risk Factors:21
Effects long term/Prolonged hypertensionCardiovascular disease is the most commonly recognized outcome of hypertension.Hypertension is an important independent risk factor for the development of renal failure, stroke, and CAD.CAD and hypertension heighten the risk of angina, myocardial infarction, and heart failure.The great concern for the prevention, early identification, and treatment of hypertension is because of the harm it may cause in body tissues and organs and the resulting significant morbidity and mortality. This end-organ damage is a function of both the stage of hypertension and its duration.Treatment: drug therapy, weight loss, lifestyle alterationsDifference between primary and secondary hypertension:Primary hypertension is an idiopathic disorder; secondary hypertension has an identifiable cause. CHAPTER 18: ALTERATIONS IN CARDIAC FUNTIONCORONARY HEART DISEASE:CHD also referred to as ischemic heart disease because it is characterized as insufficient oxygenated blood to the myocardium because of atherosclerotic coronary arteries. oAtherosclerosis causes narrowing of the arterial lumen and predisposes to several processes including: thrombus formation, coronary vasospasm, and endothelial cell dysfunction.oRisk factors for CHD include: age, family history, abnormal lipid levels, cigarette smoking, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity.