HK 3810 Package 3 Respiration.docx

Vaq 0q 0 where there is no q vaq va0 infinity

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VA/Q = 0/Q = 0 Where there is no Q VA/Q = VA/0 = infinity Hyperventilation increase VA/Q = infinity Predict gasses in alveolar space VA adds O2 and removes CO2 from alveolar space Blood Q adds CO2 and removes O2 from alveolar space Increase in VA add more O2 by ventilation than removing by Q, so there is an increase in PAO2 and PaO2 This means more CO2 is removed by ventilation than removing by Q, so decrease in PACO2 and PaCO2 Increase in blood Q increase CO of right heart (MCFP, contractility, HR) VA/increase Q = O Increase in Q adds more CO2 than removing by VA, so increase PACO2 and PaCO2 More O2 is being removed than adding by VA, so decrease in PAO2 and PaO2 How do we carry O2 and CO2 in the blood? Hb in RBC is needed to help carry O2 It carries 65 times more O2 than plasma All tissues are using O2 at a basam metabolic rate Basal resting O2 consumption is 250mL/min PaO2 = 100mmHg 3mL of O2 is dissolved in plasma Hb reversibly binds O2 at certain O2 Lower PO2 causes dissociation of Hb and O2 In the lung, there is a high PO2 so 100% of Hb can be loaded up by O2
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HK 3810 Package 3 Respiration As we start to head into the tissues and veins, PO2 drops, causing Hb and O2 to dissociate Furthermore, there is high CO2, H+, 2,3 DPG, and temp near the venous side, which decreases the ability of Hb to bind to O2 Conversely, there are lower levels of CO2, H+, 2,3 DPG at the level of the lung, which all enhance the binding of Hb and O2 Respiratory cascades O2 o Inspired O2 from the mouth has a PO2 of 150mmHg o Venous blood coming back from tissues is approximately 40mmHg o At the level of the blood, O2 increases as we expose our high alveolar O2 to blood and LOAD it (equilibration) o What is in the alveoli then goes into the systemic arteries o The blood is taken through the cardiovasculature system and goes to capillaries which will then diffuse O2 to the tissues o Mitochondria has the lowest level of O2, so you will find diffusion gradient is between the blood and any cell’s mitochondria o There is a large gradient for diffusion o There is a drop in PO2 in the blood until we get to about 40mmHg when it will start heading back to the systemic veins, pulmonary arteries then back to the lung o High metabolic rate cause more O2 to be diffused from the blood o Low metabolic rate is the opposite CO2 o Blood with high CO2 (45mmHg) is brought in close proximity to the alveolus with alveolar CO2 of 0mmHg o They equilibrate with each other and we come out with a blood CO2 of 40mmHg o This will head off to the tissue, in the mitochondria o Diffusion gradient is from the tissue to the blood o CO2 from mitochondria will diffuse to the capillary, then the blood heads out into systemic veins then to the right heart, across the lung o High metabolic rate will produce more CO2 at the tissues o Low metabolic rate is the opposite Blood gas transport Carrying of O2 in the blood: dissolved O2, Hb/carbamino Hb High O2 in the alveolar space and low O2 in the blood, so gradient for diffusion is from the alveolus to O2 dissolved in plasma As PO2 increase in the plasma, binding of O2 to Hb in RBC enhances
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