Showed that the micro-organism coming from outside caused the food to go bad Micro-organism was not newly created - Osmosis o Application -> pickle o Preserved in salt 6.1.7: - Sugar can also be used as preservative o Ketchup is 30% sugar -> preserved - Smoke can also act as preservative o Dehydrates the food o Toxic chemical in smoke will kill or prevent growth of bacteria Red herring -> herring (type of fish) turns red when smoked Smoked meat 6.1.8: - food poisoning -> what affect it? o Salmonella in chicken o Listeria in cheese o E.coli O157H:7 (found in cattle gut) - Why do we still have so many food poisonings? o Better reporting o Increased meat consumption o Increased lifespan o Increased traveling o Industrial farming Cattle, chicken, etc grow in crowded condition -> develop infection o Use of antibiotics in animal feed
70% of antibiotics used in US is by animal feed, not human medication Prevent spread of diseases Animals grow faster Problem: Animals exposed to antibiotics may develop bacteria that is resistant to antibiotics 6.1.9: - Sodium tripolyphosphate (STP) o Retain moisture , and give texture o Kraft dinner contains STP, so does cleaning agent! Plays different role In cleaning agent, it ties up the calcium to make water less hard o Na 3 PO 4 in food, P 4 in bomb 6.1.10: - Flavour Vs. Artificial Flavour o Flavour -> ingredients come from natural sources (Ex, milk component or lactose component to imitate butter flavour) Pure vanilla extract -> in addition to naturally occurring vanillin, other chemicals present as well that gives the finer taste. o Artificial flavour -> comes from synthetic sources ; synthetic chemical (Ex, imitation butter flavour) Artificial Vanilla flavour -> only have the chemical vanillin which is naturally present in vanilla (more rough taste) You can have chemicals that are not even present in natural food Vanillin in imitation cherry flavour Artificial smoke flavour Some chemicals in smoke is not favoured by some people Might be safer than broiling the meat Produced by passing hickory smoke through water solution o Flavours are picked up in the water, but not the toxic chemicals Lesson 2: Food Additives II 6.2.1: - Food colours o In Canada; 10 synthetic colours (8 allowed + 2 restricted), and 25 natural colours allowed - Caramel o the most widely used food colouring in north America o Natural food colour o Used in soft drinks (cola drinks) o 4-methylimidazole is produced during the production of caramel 4-methylimidazole is a potential carcinogen for animals
6.2.2: - Beta-carotene (E160a) o Widely used natural food colour o Present in carrots - Canthaxanthin (E160g) o Similar to beta-carotene (same colour -> orange reddish colour) o Widely used as artificial tanning agent o Fat solub le (beta-carotene is also fat soluble) When canthaxanthin pill is taken, it will deposit in the fatty tissue under the skin -> skin appear coloured 4 pills/day recommended o Not allowed in Canada for tanning agent It ill deposit in retina and cause crystal deposit -> painful -
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- Spring '11