29 describe the process of translation including

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29. Describe the process of translation (including initiation, elongation, and termination) and explain which enzymes, protein factors, and energy sources are needed for each stage. 30. Describe the significance of polyribosomes. 31. Describe what determines whether a ribosome will be free in the cytosol or attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum. 32. Describe two properties of RNA that allow it to perform so many different functions. 33. Compare protein synthesis in prokaryotes and in eukaryotes. 34. Define point mutations . Distinguish between base-pair substitutions and base-pair insertions. Give examples of each and note the significance of such changes. 35. Describe several examples of mutagens and explain how they cause mutations. Past Free-Response Questions: 1974: Describe protein synthesis in terms of molecular structures of the nucleic acids and using a specific example, explain how a new phenotypic characteristic may result from a change in DNA. 1977: Proteins are composed of amino acid subunits which form stable three-dimensional structures. a. Describe how the genetic instructions coded in DNA are translated into the primary structure (sequence of amino acid subunits) of a protein molecule. b. Explain how interactions among the individual amino acid subunits influence the transformation of the molecule into its three-dimensional structure and how they stabilize it. 1979: In relation to the chemical nature of the gene, describe: a. the chemical structure of the gene b. the replication (self-copying) of the gene c. gene mutations, including chromosomal aberrations
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AP Biology 3 1982: A portion of a specific DNA molecule consists of the following sequence of nucleotide triplets: TAC GAA CTT CGG TCC This DNA sequence codes for the following short polypeptide: methionine - leucine - glutamic acid - proline - arginine Describe the steps in the synthesis of this polypeptide. What would be the effect of a deletion or an addition in one of the DNA nucleotides? What would be the effect of a substitution in one
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