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Had theshaking been more vigorous or not long enough the amount of suds or precipitates may not have been able to form enough for me to identify them clearly. The observations are also subjective. Aside from the pH paper my eyes and my personal judgments on color,appearance and firmness were the tools used to identify changes. Discussion and Conclusion-The synthesis and analysis of soap not only allowed for the production of soap from oils but also demonstrated properties of soaps. By adding equal amounts of sodium hydroxide to these oils a mixture of soap and glycerol was produced and could be separated in order to test for cleaning properties. By breaking the ester linkage present in the triglyceride the soap could be obtained from the solution. And then by using distilled, hard and tap water we could demonstrate the true cleaning capacity of these soaps. A very interesting relationship between fatty acid percent and pH could also be seen. For example, coconut oil was a soap in which had bold differences from the first phase Finally in testing the pH of the oil in phase three it tested at a pH of 12; proving its basic nature. Upon looking back at the table presented in the lab manual (pg. 27) I found that the Unsat./Sat ratio in coconut oil is very low compared to the other oils, at a 0.1. Using this relationship it appeared to follow for olive oil as well. Olive oil’s ratio is a 4.6 and it’s pH was also found to at a pH of 12, indicating another strong base. This shows a direct relationship between the total fatty acid ratio and the pH. Almost all of the soaps made by oils, aside from canola also produced some form of precipitates when calcium chloride was added. By producing artificial hard water a layer of soap scum was produced because the calcium is not
soluble. Detergent did not prove to be affected by any of the three different solutions, showing it’s diversity in cleaning under different environments. Questions-A.What happened to the glycerol produced during the saponification?