asks you to give a speech or provide some other service, it may offer you an honorarium o A clear sociological distinction exists between the product and the payment o You agree to provide the service, and then you act pleasantly surprised when there is some money attached to it o Also, the people who invited you to present the speech have to give you the honorarium just because you showed up, no matter what you end up saying Simmel argues that through these increasingly depersonalized forms of monetary payment, capitalism makes true friendship possible He also argues that in pre-capitalist times, people traded with their neighbors and relied on each other to produce enough good and then fairly divide it up among the entire village In modern capitalist society, however, there is a strong norm against mixing business with pleasure Simmel argues that it is only by maintaining a monetized, economic public sphere that we can enjoy a private sphere that truly is private, where we actively exclude market and monetary relations in order to experience pure sociability Karl Marx Unlike Smith and Simmel, Karl Marx considered capitalism both fundamentally flawed and inevitably doomed He saw alienation the basic state of being in a capitalist society o DEF: a condition in which people are dominated by forces of their own creation that then confront them as alien powers; according to Marx, the basic state of being in a capitalist society Marx viewed alienation as taking four forms under capitalist production: alienation from the product, the process, other people, and one’s self o Workers are alienated from the product that they produce (e.g. a shoemaker being replaced by a factory assembly line) Labor is, in a sense, forced by economic need, and its rhythm is controlled not by the individual producer but by some larger social force, institution or the individual and the result is alienation Marx believes that workers are also alienated from other people because capitalism turns all relations into market relations Marx finally argues that we are alienated from ourselves: we have an ability to create objects for both affective and instrumental value—objects with inherent-use value and objects that become tools to produce yet other things, respectively R V CH 14: CAPITALISM AND THE ECONOMY
He claims what ultimately separates us from other animals is that humans can experience conception before execution; that is, we have the ability to create something in our minds before we fashion it in nature Marx believed that under capitalism, the working class would rise against the employing (capitalist) class, and would eventually usher in a new mode of production called socialism followed swiftly by communism o Socialism: an economic system in which most or all of the needs of the population are met through nonmarket methods of distribution o Communism : a political ideology of a classless society in which the means of production are shared through state ownership and in which rewards are tied not to productivity but to need Max Weber Weber believed that
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