Copy of Anthro 41A Final Review.docx

Weber he noticed and argues that the transition to

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Weber: He noticed and argues that the transition to capitalism happened in Europe first in the Protestant nations, then later in the Catholic nations. o Argues that there must be something about Protestant attitudes that encourages the development of capitalism. Weber Statement: He said that it was the Protestants who first started challenging the power of traditional rules and their beliefs would pave way for a new capitalist state system that would replace the traditional feudal/tributary system. Protestant: A religious group that criticized practices of the Catholic church and rejected the Popes authority Protestants - Produced by Martin Luther (Lutherans): This first wave of Protestants believed that the pope was not God's representative and "protest" the popes claim to authority. Anti Pope -- Pro King Protestants - King Henry VIII (Anglicans): He created the second wave of Protestants when he declared England was not longer Catholic (became Anglican) and was not subject to the pope’s authority so that he could divorce his wife. Anti Pope -- Pro King Protestants - John Calvin (Calvinists)
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John Calvin—claimed that the rising of the middle class was God's elect and that they had the right to hold political power. Led the third wave of protestants who were the most radical. Claimed that Christians should not not only refuse to obey the Pope but they should also disobey any kings who were ungodly. Majority of these people were from European growing middle class Being religious, hard working and the accumulating wealth was viewed as a sign of God's approval (the "Protestant Ethic") Nobility generally did not join Calvinist churches The poor were unlikely to become Calvinists Anti Pope -- Anti King Habsburg Myth – 1: (Where Emperor Charles I & V—Holy Roman Emperor—stemmed from): The claimed to be descended from the royal family of ancient Troy and from Julius Caesar and Caesar Augustus. Habsburg Myth – 2: They claimed that they were chosen by God to prepare the way for the Kingdom of Heaven and Christ's second coming. Habsburg Myth – 3: Claimed that the were destined to rule all—Fredrick III’s (great grand-father of Charles V) motto was A. E. I. O. U. Habsburg Myth – 4: Believed that astrology supported their destiny to become a family of global Christian rulers Martin Luther: Posted the 95 Thesis (basically his complaints about the church) on the church door in Wittenberg, Saxony on Oct. 3, 1517 o This started the Protestant Reformation - led the first wave. o Sent to the Vatican on church business (the pope at the time was Pope Leo X) o Was very decadent, even immoral and spent huge sums of money which he raised through the church by selling indulgences o The Protestant Reformation was part of a process of political and social change in Western Europe that would eventually undermine feudalism and create modern nation-states based on capitalist economic relationships o Martin Luther was taken to trial in front of Emperor Charles I & V for his
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