The term blockchain refers to a chain of blocks where each block stores a group

The term blockchain refers to a chain of blocks where

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]. The term, blockchain refers to a chain of blocks where each block stores a group of information about its past, present and future [ 19 , 20 ]. Each block plays a key role in connecting with the previous block, and with the following block, as soon as it comes into the system to be a part of the chain [ 21 ]. The main role of each block is to record, validate and distribute the transactions among other blocks [ 22 ]. This means that a block in the chain cannot be removed or altered as this would change every subsequent block [ 23 , 24 ]. The blockchain network is, therefore, a decentralized information system [ 25 , 26 ] that contains information about all past transactions and operates on a pre-selected protocol which defines the direction of performing and validating the transactions, as well as the functioning of the entire network and its members [ 27 ]. Moreover, this network is usually referred to as a distributed registry, as data is stored on each node operating in each of the individual networks [ 28 , 29 ]. A transaction group in blockchain networks is combined into blocks of transactions connected in the chain using the hash of the previous block’s record [ 30 ]. Therefore, as a property of immutability, the basic security feature of blockchain networks is enforced [ 31 ]. The further the block is along the chain (the older it is), the more the data included in it is protected from changes [ 32 ]. If an attacker tries to change any of the keys, the local register will immediately cease to be valid because the hash values inside the next blocks headers will be completely di ff erent depending on the hash function mechanism [ 33 , 34 ]. 3. A Review on Blockchain Healthcare Applications Legacy systems typically only share healthcare resources internally in the medical and healthcare field and are not fully compatible with external systems. Nonetheless, evidence indicates numerous benefits from integrating these networks for interconnected and better healthcare, calling for interconnection between di ff erent organizations for health informatics researchers [ 35 ]. One of the most critical issues is multi-organizational data exchange, which demands that medical data
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Electronics 2020 , 9 , 94 3 of 23 obtained by a healthcare provider be easily available to other organizations, such as a physician or research institute. In many healthcare implementations, blockchain technology redefines data processing and governance. This is to its adaptability and unprecedented segmentation, secure and sharing of medical data and services. In the healthcare industry, blockchain technology is at the forefront of many current developments. With advances in electronic data related to health, cloud data storage and patient data protection regulations, new opportunities are opening up for the management of health data, as well as convenience for patients to access and share their health data [ 36 ]. Ensuring data security, storing, transactions, and managing their smooth integration is tremendously valuable to any data-driven organization,
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