B galactosidase hydrolyses onpg to a yellow product

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• b -Galactosidase hydrolyses ONPG to a Yellow Product - The MUG Test can indicate the Presence of Coliforms by demonstrating the Presence of b -Glucuronidase • b -Glucuronidase hydrolyses MUG to a Product that fluoresces Blue under UV Illumination
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Water and Sewage Treatment Page 4 Water Treatment Water Treatment depends on the Purity of the Source Water. Clean Sources (Wells, Mountain Streams) may require little or no Treatment. Davis merely chlorinates Water from its 22 Wells. • Sedimentation - Settling Tanks • Allows Leaves, Sand, and Gravel to sink - Flocculation (L= little tuft [flock] of Wool) • Addition of Aluminum Sulfate (Alum) or Iron Sulfate causes precipitation of suspended Materials • Filtration - Slow Sand Filter • Fine Particles of Sand several Feet Deep • Develops a Schmutzdecke (German = dirty layer) of Microbes that acts as a Biofilter - Slow Sand Filters effectively remove Giardia • Can filter ~ 3 Million Gallons of Water per Day - Rapid Sand Filter • Contains Coarse Gravel as well as Sand • Does not develop a Schmutzdecke and so must be cleaned more often - Rapid Sand Filters do not remove Giardia • Can filter ~ 200 Million Gallons of Water per Day - Charcoal • Removes Organic Chemicals, as well as Microbes - Filtration removes approximately 99% of Microbes • Chlorination - Addition of Chlorine (usually as a Gas) to 0.2 to 1.0 ppm (Parts per Million) • Kills most Bacteria within about 30 Minutes • The more Organics in the Water, the more Chlorine must be added
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