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translation.4. (8 marks, 8 minutes) Mitochondria, chloroplasts and ATP.A) 4 marks. In chloroplasts, protons are pumped out of the stroma across the thylakoid membrane, whereas in mitochondria they are pumped out of the matrix across the inner membrane. Explain how this arrangement allows chloroplasts to generate a larger proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane than mitochondria can generate across the inner membrane. Use diagrams where appropriate.
B) 4 marks. Unlike mitochondria, chloroplasts do not have a transporter that allows them to export ATP to the cytosol. How then does the rest of the cell get the ATP it needs?