teaching/research faculty positions in a network of public research universities; of research and development labs attached to state enterprises in strategic sectors; of special research funds and government agencies to support R&D activities. - The United Nations university, Institute for New Technologies Brazil General Information on R&D 2013 GDP, billion US$, PPP $2,453 2013 GERD, billion US$, PPP $31.9 R&D/GDP 1.30% Population, million 199.3 GERD/Person $160 Published Research Papers 1999-2003, Physics 8,600 2004-2008, Physics 10,100 1999-2003, Chemistry 3,200 2004-2008, Chemistry 5,200 Academic Research Share 29% Institute Research Share 28% Industry Research Share 44% Source: Battelle/ R&D Magazine , UNESCO, Thomson Reuters Brazil’s National Innovation system Brazil’s national innovation system is relatively young compared to similarly sized economies. Brazil’s gross domestic product (GDP) is the seventh largest in the world, behind the United States, China, Japan; leading European Union countries; and ahead of Russia and India. Brazil has legislated on S&T development since the 1930s when several industrial sectors important from a national security perspective, such as oil and gas extraction, mining, and automotive and aircraft manufacturing were established as statist monopolies under a military regime. It was not until Brazil had moved towards democracy in the 1980s and gradually opened its markets to trade that the government turned its attention to economic competitiveness. The first major funding program targeting innovation went into effect in 1999; since then, several policies and strategic plans have been
implemented that target both specific technology sectors as well as the framework conditions that support Innovation. Going by commonly accepted indicators, innovation in Brazil, particularly in the private non state- supported sectors, is low compared to that of peer countries. Brazil ranks 64th in the World Economic Forum’s Global Innovation Index, behind Mexico and Russia, due to a complex but interrelated set of conditions. Despite this low ranking, Brazil leads other South American countries in the S&T arena with a strong manufacturing sector and an economy that accounted for close to 60% of the region’s GDP in 2011. Brazil’s policymakers face the challenge of making the transition from regional dominance towards global competitiveness, and deepening the Brazilian industry’s integration with global supply chains, particularly in light of China’s growing trade relationships in South America. Literature on innovation and economic development shows that there are many ways of organizing one firm’s innovative activities, especially those referred to research and development. R&D activities constitute an important source for innovation and can be carried out internally or externally through cooperative arrangements, such as networks. R&D networks, whether formal or informal, might be composed of a great array of actors, like private companies, government, universities and research institutes. When looking at countries with more intense and consolidated R&D
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