The consequence is that the prices of existing bonds

Info icon This preview shows pages 19–21. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
higher coupon rates on new bonds in order to attract investors. The consequence is that the prices of existing bonds drop because investors prefer the newer bonds paying the higher rate. On the other hand, there's also interest-rate risk when rates fall because maturing bonds or bonds that are paid off before maturity must be reinvested at a lower yield. Inflation risk describes the risk that increases in the prices of goods and services, and therefore the cost of living, reduce your purchasing power. Let's say a can of soda increases from $1 to $2. In the past, $2 would have bought two cans of soda, but now $2 can buy only one can, resulting in a decline in the value of your money. Inflation risk and interest rate risk are closely tied, as interest rates generally rise with inflation. Because of this, inflation risk can also reduce the value of your investments. For example, to keep pace with inflation and compensate for the loss of purchasing power, lenders will demand increased interest rates. This can lead to existing bonds losing value because, as mentioned above, newly issued bonds will offer higher interest rates. Inflation can go in cycles, however. When interest rates are low, new bonds will likely offer lower interest rates. Currency risk occurs because many world currencies float against each other. If money needs to be converted to a different currency to make an investment, any change in the exchange rate between that currency and yours can increase or reduce your investment return. You are usually only impacted by currency risk if you invest in international securities or funds that invest in international securities. For example, assume that the current exchange rate of the U.S. dollar to British pound is $1=0.53 British pounds. If you invest $1,000 in a mutual fund that invests in the stock of British companies, this will equal 530 pounds ($1,000 x 0.53 pounds = 530 pounds). Six months later, assume the dollar strengthens and the exchange rate becomes $1=0.65 pounds. If the value of the fund does not change, converting the original investment of 530 pounds into dollars will return only $815 (530 pounds/0.65 pounds = $815). Consequently, while the value of the mutual fund has not changed in the local currency, a change in the exchange rate has devalued the original investment of $1,000 into $815. On the other hand, if the dollar were to weaken, the value of the investment would go up. So if the exchange rate changes to $1=0.43 pounds, the original investment of $1,000 would increase to $1,233 (530 pounds/0.43 pounds = $1,233). As with most risks, currency risk can be managed to a certain extent by allocating only a limited
Image of page 19

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
portion of your portfolio to international investments and diversifying this portion across various countries and regions. Liquidity risk is the risk that you might not be able to buy or sell investments quickly for a price that is close to the true underlying value of the asset. Sometimes you may not be able to sell the investment at all if there are no buyers for it. Liquidity risk is usually higher in over-the-counter markets and small-capitalization stocks. Foreign investments can pose liquidity risks as well. The
Image of page 20
Image of page 21
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern