is essentially hypertrophic horticulture among large populations.
Hypertrophic means abnormally large. A shift of population from food production to specialization leads to
Industrialism or mechanization/mass production.
Food gathering based primarily on raising domesticated animals
A small number of societies depend principally on domesticated herds of animals for their livelihood. Typically
pastoralists subsist by taking protein from live animals in the form of milk and trading animal products with other
groups for agricultural products and other necessities. Pastoralists may trade meat, hides, wool, dairy products, etc
Formal economics is the economics of Western
culture, markets, and scarcity hypothesis/law of supply
It is characterized by maximization of personal gain, supply-demand relationships, "rational" decision-making, and
individual self interest.
economics is the economics of most anthropologists. It refers to interaction of humans to
environment and methods of want satisfaction.
This is a more holistic approach and easier to apply to nonwestern groups.
According to formalism
, economy can be analyzed independent of other social structures and institutions.
It is the approach of the economic man who economizes on resources and maximizes return; emphasis on individual
actors exercising choice.
is the school of thought that maintains that economy is embedded within other social
institutions and cannot be studied separately from social structures, like kinship, politics and religion.
This is more historical and institution-minded; and a denial that industrial capitalist theory is applicable to others; it
maintains also that formalist approaches are only applicable to modern capitalist society.
have only a loose sense of land ownership because band membership is fluid. Whereas,
industrial societies have a strong sense of ownership of land.
In a foraging society, food producers are tied to land or herds by descent from a lineage founder who owns rights.
In Africa, communal
ownership is at the heart of the traditional or customary tenure systems that still
dominate land use in rural areas.
In these customary systems of ownership, some use rights, such as the use of arable or residential lands, may be
held by individuals and passed on within a family, while access rights to pastures, forests, mountain areas,
waterways, and sacred areas may be shared.
The classic feudal
system was that some lord, king, prince, etc, owned the land. He (and it was usually a
he) would allocate much of that land to individuals (nobles) in exchange for their loyalty and some sort of
payment such as military service.
That noble might have sub nobles, with the people actually working the land in some extreme cases being serfs--