DSST Anthropology as a Discipline

Agriculture is essentially hypertrophic horticulture

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Agriculture is essentially hypertrophic horticulture among large populations. Hypertrophic means abnormally large. A shift of population from food production to specialization leads to Industrialism or mechanization/mass production. Food gathering based primarily on raising domesticated animals is called pastoralism. A small number of societies depend principally on domesticated herds of animals for their livelihood. Typically pastoralists subsist by taking protein from live animals in the form of milk and trading animal products with other groups for agricultural products and other necessities. Pastoralists may trade meat, hides, wool, dairy products, etc . Formal economics is the economics of Western culture, markets, and scarcity hypothesis/law of supply and demand. It is characterized by maximization of personal gain, supply-demand relationships, "rational" decision-making, and individual self interest. Substantive economics is the economics of most anthropologists. It refers to interaction of humans to environment and methods of want satisfaction. This is a more holistic approach and easier to apply to nonwestern groups. According to formalism , economy can be analyzed independent of other social structures and institutions. It is the approach of the economic man who economizes on resources and maximizes return; emphasis on individual actors exercising choice. Substantivism is the school of thought that maintains that economy is embedded within other social institutions and cannot be studied separately from social structures, like kinship, politics and religion. This is more historical and institution-minded; and a denial that industrial capitalist theory is applicable to others; it maintains also that formalist approaches are only applicable to modern capitalist society. Foragers have only a loose sense of land ownership because band membership is fluid. Whereas, industrial societies have a strong sense of ownership of land. In a foraging society, food producers are tied to land or herds by descent from a lineage founder who owns rights. In Africa, communal ownership is at the heart of the traditional or customary tenure systems that still dominate land use in rural areas. In these customary systems of ownership, some use rights, such as the use of arable or residential lands, may be held by individuals and passed on within a family, while access rights to pastures, forests, mountain areas, waterways, and sacred areas may be shared. The classic feudal system was that some lord, king, prince, etc, owned the land. He (and it was usually a he) would allocate much of that land to individuals (nobles) in exchange for their loyalty and some sort of payment such as military service. That noble might have sub nobles, with the people actually working the land in some extreme cases being serfs--
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Agriculture is essentially hypertrophic horticulture among...

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