DSST Anthropology as a Discipline

This is more historical and institution minded and a

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This is more historical and institution-minded; and a denial that industrial capitalist theory is applicable to others; it maintains also that formalist approaches are only applicable to modern capitalist society. Foragers have only a loose sense of land ownership because band membership is fluid. Whereas, industrial societies have a strong sense of ownership of land. In a foraging society, food producers are tied to land or herds by descent from a lineage founder who owns rights. In Africa, communal ownership is at the heart of the traditional or customary tenure systems that still dominate land use in rural areas. In these customary systems of ownership, some use rights, such as the use of arable or residential lands, may be held by individuals and passed on within a family, while access rights to pastures, forests, mountain areas, waterways, and sacred areas may be shared. The classic feudal system was that some lord, king, prince, etc, owned the land. He (and it was usually a he) would allocate much of that land to individuals (nobles) in exchange for their loyalty and some sort of payment such as military service. That noble might have sub nobles, with the people actually working the land in some extreme cases being serfs-- slaves who literally were part of the property of the noble. Most national governments have actively discouraged customary tenure systems in an attempt to encourage economic growth. The assumption--largely disproved by recent experience--was that private
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ownership would better foster the investment and productivity increases that modern states depend on for growth. In Indonesia, for example, the central government has often ignored traditional forest tenure (ownership) arrangements when selling timber concessions to private logging companies, incurring the anger of local residents who have lost use of the forest without compensation. Reciprocity is the exchange of goods and services of approximately equal value between two parties, usually surrounded by ritual and ceremony. It is also the return of gifts, services and emotions. The modes of exchange beyond the household take place symmetrically, often at the kin group level. This type of system is characteristic of food-foraging groups. In generalized reciprocity, neither the value of the gift nor the time of repayment is specified . This is in contrast to balanced reciprocity, in which the giving and receiving are specific as to the value of the goods and the time of delivery. The Kula Ring is a ceremonial exchange of shell ornaments that takes place on the Islands of New Guinea . Red shell ornaments are traded in a clockwise direction around the islands while white ornaments are traded in a counter clockwise direction. This practice is also known as the Kula Circle.
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