Pro regime bias because they are rewarded for

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Pro-regime bias because they are rewarded for supporting with regime and are capable of keeping constituency happy Trust in parties in general remains low o Due to ineffectual roles play in parliament o Low parliamentary autonomy and efficacy o Not allowed to design, pass and implement policies without regime support Vehicles of clientelistic redistribution ° promote personal ties and relations Party identification and policy issues become last important in voting behavior than possibility of benefits Access to state resources primary motivation for participation Opposition parties have fewer channels, less resources, no influence o What do regimes gain from permitting political parties? Want to keep political parties weak and ineffectual but continue to push elections Belief that elections allow authoritarian rulers to solidify their bases of support Manage political elites by bringing them into the process Manipulate elections to lend credibility and legitimacy to regime in power o What do citizens gain from parties and elections? Even carefully controlled elections provide a limited forum for public debate Access to state resources Egypt- “service parliament” Tribal loyalties People who have confidence in existing regimes vote more Feel more secure Better possibility for benefits o Elections: Who votes and why? Additional explanations Although parties have little influence, election campaigns are lively Level of education Important for following the news, not significant for voting Not engaged in political process, may only be seeking benefits and services Level of Community Activity More involved in civil society = more like to vote More confidence in existing political institutions = more likely to vote More likely to participate if direct benefits are linked to behavior Gender Men more likely than women are to participate in protest behavior, following politics
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Gap between genders in voting is not that pronounced Tribal Affiliation Base of support for regimes comes from tribal/rural areas Representation manipulated so as to give more representatives to tribal areas More likely to participate Dominate electoral terrain o Key distribution networks o Until political parties can gain more influence will remain influential o Participation in opposition movements: the rise of Islamists and the dissolution of Arab secular parties Islamism Explained by Fall of communism was a blow to left leaning groups As leftist parties shrank, leaders moved into NGOs and the civil society sector o After collapse of USSR, liberalization occurred ° decrease in restrictions on civil society activity, increase in groups working for women’s rights, human rights, and democracy o NGOs funded from abroad, lack constituency o Reputations suffer due to links to the West Popularity of Islam makes it hard to find an audience
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  • Spring '13
  • The Republic, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Pahlavi dynasty, Islamists

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