Madariaga et al 15 from the O ff shore Renewable Energy ORE Catapult give an

Madariaga et al 15 from the o ff shore renewable

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Madariaga et al. [15] from the O ff shore Renewable Energy (ORE) Catapult give an overview of existing cost literature from former studies and include inputs from industry consultation to provide cost data for all crucial components. The resulting costs are compared to realised projects, namely BorWin2 and SylWin1 . ETYS15 [16] is the most recent version of the ETYS this review refers to. Following ETYS13 as the earliest version containing a detailed cost compilation for HVDC technology, ETYS15 comprises technology cost data based on updated project information. Torbaghan [17] from the Delft University of Technology includes a cost model for the o ff shore grid investigations in his doctoral thesis. Assessing o ff shore grid investments with a focus on optimisation techniques, the cost model uses only one parameter to cover all costs incurred by o ff shore transmission investments. 3. Cost parameter set processing There are two motivations why a uniform cost model is indispensable in this context: To apply the cost parameter sets in transmission expansion studies To allow for comparison and evaluation of the di ff erent cost parameter sets Hence, such a uniform cost model is introduced here, which allows the collected cost parameter sets to be converted into a common format, and the calculation of an average parameter set. 3.1. Cost model Transmission grid expansion problems are usually formulated by a set of nodes representing connection points, generators, and load centres, as well as a set of branches representing potential transmission lines between these nodes. The branch length is calculated based on the known bee-line distance between the nodes, either by including a simple markup or with a detailed line route definition. An optimisation algorithm identifies the connections to invest in and computes the corresponding transmission capacities, based on a cost model function assigning investment cost parameters to potential nodes and branches. 3
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A linear cost model yields significant benefits for transmission expansion planning problems and the optimisation algorithms solving them, as computation time and convergence face severe challenges when complex cost models are applied. For this reason, the cost model used in this article is linear. This kind of linear model provides an approximation of the investment cost associated with o ff shore grid HVDC infrastructure and yields a reasonable accuracy regarding long-term large-scale transmission expansion studies. For instance, a detailed justification can be found in [18]. Based on [18] and [19], the linear unicorn cost model for VSC HVDC transmission investments is defined in Equation (1): C k est , i = F i X f B k f ( l f , p f ) + G i X g N k g ( p g ) + H i X h S k h ( p h ) (1) The specific cost components in Equation (1) B k f ( l f , p f ), N k g ( p g ) and S k h ( p h ) are specified by Equation (2), Equation (3) and Equation (4): B k f ( l f , p f ) = B k lp · l f · p f + p f ˆ P j B k l · l f + B k 0 (2) N k g ( p g ) = N k p · p g + p g ˆ P j N k 0 (3) S k h ( p h ) = S k p · p h + p
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  • Fall '10
  • BOB
  • Electric power transmission, Cost overrun, VSC, VSC HVDC

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