Prototype specification adoption user needs

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Prototype Specification Adoption User needs Requirements Gathering Deployment Testing Development Evaluation Field Laboratory Organizational change
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Analysis Analysis refers to breaking a whole into its parts with the intent of understanding the parts’ nature, functions, and interrelationships. Planning phase deliverables are the key inputs into the analysis phase. The basic process of analysis involves three steps: Understand the existing situation (the as-is) system) Identify improvements Define the requirements for the new system (the to- be )
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Requirements A requirement is a statement of what the system must do or what characteristics it needs to have. Requirements describe what the business needs [business requirements] what the users need to do [user requirements] what the software should do [functional requirements] characteristics the system should have [non- functional or behavioral requirements] how the system should be built [system requirements]
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Functional vs. Non-Functional
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Functional vs. Non-Functional
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Functional vs. Non-Functional
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Requirements Gathering Data collection about the as-is conditions Foundation for all analysis activities Feasibility analyses Technical Economic Organizational Risk assessment Process/data/logic modeling
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Requirements Gathering Unfolding research over time Iterative process Spiral in on information, triangulate among data Allow time for reflection What do we have? What do we need? For 636 projects, plan on more than 1 visit with more than 1 team member present.
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Requirements Gathering In 636 projects you will be encouraged to: Cover multiple perspectives Management End user Customer Triangulate among different data sources Observations Interviews Document/systems review
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Requirements Gathering Your job, Find the TRUE story in the midst… The best systems designs address the real problems, understanding the real constraints.
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Confounding Perspectives Tacit vs. explicit knowledge Deeply routinized vs. explicable Expert vs. novice 55
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Confounding Perspectives Formal processes / explicit work-flow “Look at the org chart here…” “The process states…” “In the employee manual…” Informal processes / work-arounds “But usually…” “Whenever that doesn’t work…” “You really ought to just ask the secretary…” Criticality of informal processes – “Work to rule”
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Confounding Perspectives Web of computing Nothing exists in isolation Feedback loops (social and technical)
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Confounding Perspectives Technological utopianism (Dunlop & Kling, ’91) “Information systems solve everything!” “The more automation, the better!” “If it’s new, it has to be an improvement!” “But, it’s a peta…” Technological dystopianism “Information systems never work.” “Every new upgrade makes my job harder.” “It is always better the old way.”
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Confounding Perspectives Overly positive Face management, you are an outsider
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  • Fall '08
  • Koru,G
  • Project Management, Requirements analysis, John Walker, requirements gathering

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