Carmon 1999 suggests three generations of urban

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Carmon (1999) suggests three generations of urban renewal . Generation Theme Period Main actor Progress First The era of the bulldozer 1930s- 1950s Public agencies Physical determinism and emphasis on the built environment Second Neighborhood rehabilitation 1960s Public agencies A comprehensive approach emphasizing social problems Third Revitalization, especially in city centers Since 1970s Public-private partnership A business-like approach emphasizing economic development Data source: Carmon, N. (1999). Three generations of urban renewal policies: analysis and policy implications. Geoforum, 30 , 145-149.
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Growth Management (1970s— present) No doubt that the growing environmental consciousness of the 1960s and the 1970s lent much strength to the growth management movement. By the late 1970s, nine states had wrested the control of development decision-making away from local governments and reshaped the state’s interest in local government control decision-making for specific areas or functions (California, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, and North Carolina) or for planning and plan- implementation as a whole (Florida, Hawaii, Oregon and Vermont) (DeGrove, 1992).
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According to Rusk (2000), regional growth management, however, must also be a key target of the social justice movement in America. Growth management is the essential framework within which access to low-skilled jobs can improve, fiscal equity can be achieved, and greater economic integration can be promoted.
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New Urbanism (1980s— present) New Urbanism is an American urban design movement that initiated in the early 1980s.
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