Philosophy Midterm Review Sheet

Death is of the body and not the soul we should not

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Death is of the body and not the soul, we should not fear it. Socrates wants to be free of the body because it holds him down. Hylo-Morphism – Hylo - Matter Morphic- Form -Body and soul form an integreal unity. The soul needs a body 2. What does Socrates claim about the role of the senses, pleasure, and the body in gaining knowledge of things as they are in themselves? Connect this to Socrates’ claim that philosophy is “training for death.”
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- If all that is knowable is the Forms of things, and if only the Forms are REAL, and if the Forms are invisible, not sensible, unchanging; and if the senses only register what is visible, changing, then we can’t gain knowledge about things as they are in themselves in this life. Therefore, when a philosopher dies they will be able to gain knowledge of things as they are in themselves. The purpose of the philosophical life is to free the soul from the needs of the body. Since the moment of death is the final separation of soul and body, a philosopher should see it as the realization of his aim. 3. Socrates entertains three theses about what happens to the soul after bodily death and attempts to refute each of them in order to prove that the soul not only survives bodily death, but is immortal. Summarize the arguments surrounding two of these theses. 1) Scattering (77b-80b ) p. Only composite things can break apart p. Composite things change, simple things stay the same. p. perceptible things always change p. invisible things never change p. Body and Soul are invisible C: The soul does not break apart The Body breaks apart, the soul disperses. 2) Harmony A) -comes to exist after its Parts -The Soul pre-exists the body -The soul is a harmony B) - A harmony can be more or less harmonized - soul cannot be more or less of a soul c. Soul cannot be a harmony C) -One soul cannot be more of a soul than another - If a soul were a harmony, no soul could have more or less harmony -Evil is disharmony, Good is harmony c. Every soul is equally good 3) Cloak – Soul wears many bodies, but eventually dies. Forms: things that are unchanging, non-material. p. When an opposite approaches a FORM, the FORM either flees, or is destroyed. p. Life is the opposite of Death p. A soul is what brings life to the body p. Death is the DESTRUCTION of the BODY c. The soul does not admit death. The Soul flees the body. 4. In the midst of proving the immortality of the soul, Socrates outlines a metaphysical theory of Forms we called the “ theory of participation .” Briefly describe the main idea of this theory and the sense in which forms “cause” a thing to be what it is, and how visible things are deficient with respect to forms. (Note: Review Stevenson chapter on the forms) - Humans participate in humanness, horses in horseness, we participate in the forms of our kind. Forms are universal and unchanging, and we know them in theory, we have no direct knowledge of forms. Forms are what truly exist, what we encounter are only approximations Republic 1. Briefly summarize how Socrates argues that there are three parts of the soul .
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-Plato believes that humans participate in the form of humanness. We participate in the form of our kind. All forms are universal and unchanging. Forms are what truly exist and we know them only in
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