Pender decided to formulate the health promotion model because she was influenced to develop a theory that focused on positivity instead of negative views that she noticed when researching models during that time (nursing-theory.org). Pender was motivated to develop the health promotion model when she noticed a delay in health care services (nursing-theory.org). Professionals in health care waited until patients acquired acute or chronic health problems to intervene (nursing-theory.org). She believed that if health problems were addressed at the first sign of symptoms or were prevented, patient quality of life could be improved, and the cost of health care could be decreased by promoting healthy lifestyles (nursing-theory.org). In 1982, the health promotion model was first published, and later was revised in 1996 to change theoretical perspectives and empirical findings (nursing-theory.org). The HPM is based
4Pender Health Promotion Model on theories of human behaviors (Peterson & Bredow, 2009). The expectancy-value theory and social-cognitive theory are health behavior theories that the HPM primarily focuses on (Peterson & Bredow, 2009). Pender’s HPM was derived from Fishbien and Ajzen expectancy- value theoryin 1975, and Bandura’s social-cognitive theory that was developed in 1986 (Peterson & Bredow, 2009). The expectancy-value theory explains that people work toward the things they value, which relates to a hypothesis by Pender, stating that when people have personal value benefits, they are likely to participate in certain behaviors (Peterson & Bredow, 2009). The self-efficacy concept in Bandura’s theory, also relate to the HPM. Bandura proposed that even in the face of obstacles, the greater an individual’s self-efficacy for a behavior, they are likely to engage it in (Peterson & Bredow, 2009). Bandura’s proposition shares a relationship with Pender’s proposition of the likelihood of a person to perform or commit to a behavior is based on high self-efficacy (Peterson & Bredow, 2009). Moreover, the HPM addresses health promoting behaviors that increase individual, families, and communities toward optimal well-being. The model also addresses three major categories that branch off into concepts that will be later discussed in this paper. The categories are individual characteristics and experiences, behavior-specific cognitions and affect, and behavioral outcomes (Butts & Rich, 2015). These areas addressed can be adjusted through nursing actions, and are significant to each individual’s personal traits and experiences that affectsubsequent actions (nursing-theory.org). The variables also affect self-motivation and behavior specific knowledge (nursing-theory.org). Based on the variables, the end result should lead to health improvement, enhanced functional ability, and healthy quality of life (nursing-theory.org).
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- Nursing, Nola J. Pender