Flavivirus includes the yellow fever, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and tick-borneencephalitis viruses.
In 1943, Ren Kimura and Susumu Hotta first isolated the dengue virus. These twoscientists were studying blood samples of patients taken during the 1943 dengueepidemic in Nagasaki, Japan. A year later, Albert B. Sabin and Walter Schlesingerindependently isolated the dengue virus. Both pairs of scientist has isolated the virusnow referred to as dengue virus 1 (DEN-1).In the Philippines Agrupis KA, Ylade M. Aldaba J, Lopez AL, Deen J are thescientist of Dengue Research in the Philippines these four (4) they described denguein the Philippines, where the diseases is a great concern, they study the types ofdengue and the main findings and important gaps. They identified 135 studies thatdescribed dengue research in the Philippines during the past 60 years.Impact on the SocietyPeople who are infected with dengue virus are asymptomatic(80%) or have only mild symptoms such as an uncomplicated fever.Others have more severe illness (5%),and in a small proportion it is life-threatening.The incubation period(time between exposure and onset of symptoms) ranges from 3 to 14 days, but most often it is 4 to 7 days. Travelers returning from endemic areas are unlikely to have dengue if fever or other symptoms start more than 14 days after arriving home. Children often experience symptoms similar to those of the common coldand gastroenteritis(vomiting and diarrhea)and have a greater risk of severe complications, though initial symptoms are generally mild but include high fever.There are two major abnormalities in the pathophysiology of DHF/DSS leading to afatal outcome:1. Increased vascular permeability, plasma leakage, hemoconcentration, andhypovolemic shock
2. Coagulopathy including thrombocytopenia leading to disseminatedintravascular coagulation and massive hemorrhage.Dengue fever has a multisectorial impact in the medical, societal, economic andpolitical sectors.Dengue virus or fever has been counted among emerging and re-emerging diseases:1. The expansion of epidemic2. The increasing number of patients3. The appearance of severe clinical manifestation of dengue hemorrhagic fever.
Mad CowHistorical BackgroundMad cow disease, or bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), is afatalneurological disorder of cattle resulting from infection by a prion, it’s a disease thatwas first found in cattle. It's related to a disease in humans called variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). Both disorders are universally fatal brain diseases caused by aprion. A prion is a protein particle that lacks DNA (nucleic acid). It's believed to bethe cause of various infectious diseases of the nervous system. Eating infected cattleproducts, including beef, can cause a human to develop mad cow disease.
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- Fall '19
- Test, Prion, Avian influenza