whose power grew during the Abbasid Caliphate’s bureaucratization Chapter 7 5. In the Abbasid Empire, women were seen as inferior. They were confined to harems. They had to wear veils. Polygamy was practiced. The caliphs often had many female slaves and concubines, whom they often valued more than their wives because they were educated and their wives were not. The elite women plotted to get the throne for their sons. 6. Muslims were not very successful in converting Indians to Islam. However, there was mutual disdain between Muslims and Hindus. Muslims conquered areas of India and formed the Delhi Sultanate, but Muslims and Hindus were kept separate and did not mix much. Islam appealed to untouchables and Sudras because Islam preached equality for all believers (but Muslims were at the top caste so lack of connection resulted in lack of converts), and to Buddhists because Buddhism was in decline in India. Intermarriage encouraged conversion. Sufis were more successful at gaining converts because their mystical style was more familiar. 7. Key Terms: a. sultan – Muslim governor of a province in India within the Arab Empire b. Ottoman Empire – empire following the Abbasids; tribe of Turks rose up and seized the power vacuum left by the Mongols (r. 1299-1923); defeated the Byzantine Empire in 1453 c. Crusades – a serious of military expeditions led by Europeans to recapture the Holy Land from the Muslims (1095-1291); called for by Pope Urban II; unsuccessful but resulted in the Europeans’ regaining of classical knowledge d. Rubaiyat – Persian book of poetry written by Omar Kayyam 8. Key People: a. al Mahdi – third Abbasid caliph (r. 775-785) whose royal extravagance, failure to compromise with Shi’as, and negligence of establishing a successor led to the decline of the Abbasid Caliphate, brought by financial drain on luxury, constant Shi’a rebellion, and succession struggles b. Harun al-Rashid – fourth and most famous Abbasid caliph (r. 786-809) whose extravagant palace life was immortalized in The Thousand and One Nights ; civil war followed his death, which established the practice of throne contestants to amass large armies c. al Ma’mun – sixth Abbasid caliph (r. 813-833); son of Harun al-Rashid, fought with and defeated his brother al-Amin, who was caliph at the time, during the first civil war for the throne
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