Outline and Lecture Notes of Chapter 7 (1).doc

How words communicated the meaning we intend to get

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How words communicated the meaning we intend to get across in our communication. 2
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a. Denotative meanings are the more public, objective, dictionary-based meanings. b. Connotative meanings are the more personal, emotionally charged, private, individually-based meanings. 4. Syntactics refers to the study of the structure of a language/the relationship of the words to one another-the rules for combining words into meaningful sentences. One way to think of this is to consider how the order of the words in a sentence creates a particular meaning. For example, the word order in the sentence "The red car smashed into the blue car" makes a big difference in the meaning of the sentence. "The blue car smashed into the red car" means something else entirely. Consider This: Word Order Sample Languages SVO “cats eat mice” English, Chinese, Swahili SOV “cats mice eat” Japanese, Korean VSO “eat cats mice” Classical Arabic, Welsh, Samoan VOS “eat mice cats” Tzotzil (a Mayan language) OSV “mice cats eat” Kabardian (a language of the northern Caucasus ) OVS “mice eat cats” Hixkaryana (a language of Brazil) Source: Matthews, Polinsky and Comrie (1996) Note: S=subject; V=verb; O=object 5. Pragmatics refers to the study of how language is actually used and the effect that language has on human perceptions and behaviors. (How people perceive the meaning of communication according to the context in which it occurs.) It’s would need to be familiar with the culture to know exactly how to use the world. We can employ more than one purpose for the same words, For example, if someone says “That’s lovely outfit,” you might interpret it in different ways depending on the way the speaker said it, your relationship with the speaker, and so on. The person might be making fun of your outfit flirting with you, or simply giving you a compliment. So the 3
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meaning does not come from the words or the word order alone but depends on other things. E. Interpretation and intercultural communication 1. Distinguishing between translation and interpretation a. Translation is the use of verbal signs of one language to understand the verbal signs of another language. b. Interpretation is the oral process of moving from one code to another. 2. Equivalence in translation “Traduttore, traditore,”/“Translator, traitor.”-Italy Read This: 4
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a. Translation equivalence is used to describe the process of trying to translate and represent a source language as closely as possible. b. Translation Problems: Types of equivalence 1. Vocabulary equivalence refers to finding a word in the target language that has the same meaning in the source language. 2. Idiomatic equivalence refers to expressions that have a meaning contrary to the usual meanings of the words.
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