These compounds can therefore provide quantitative

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These compounds can therefore provide quantitative information on these functions of the kidney, in addition to dynamic images.
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----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Chapter 7. EXAMINATION OF THE BLOOD 407 CLINICAL BLOOD ANALYSIS Determination of the number of erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelet in the blood has long been fundamental procedure in hematology. Manual methods provide satisfactory measurement of the leukocytes and platelet counts, but the erythrocytes count is quite inaccurate when performed man- ually. Electronic automatically cell counting methods by electrical imped- ance and optical devices are now widely used and permit accurate enumera- tion of all there formed elements. The International Committee for Standardization in Hematology has recommended that the following units be used (SI units): white cell count, “number x 109/1”, red cell count, “number x 10l2/l” and platelet as “number x 109/1”. Erythrocytes Normal values of erythrocytes count Men 5.5±1.0 x 10n/l Women 4.8±1.0 x 10,2/1 Infants, full-term, cord blood 5.0±1.0 x 10,2/1 Children, 1 year 4.4±0.8 x 1012/1 Children, 10-12 years 4.7±0.7 x 10,2/1 Clinical significance o f erythrocytes changes The changes of erythrocytes are corresponded to the quantitative (in- creasing or decreasing of erythrocytes number) and qualitative (morphol- ogy cells). Increasing of erythrocytes number is classified as erythrocytosis, de- creasing - as erythrocytopenia.
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408 Chapter 7 Examination of the Blood Erythrocytosis Physiological condition: newborn, excessive perspiration. Pathological condition: Primary. Polycythemia Vera Secondary: 1. Associated with hypoxia - cardiovascular disease, usually congenital resulting in significant venous admixture; - pulmonary disease resulting in impaired gas perfusion, perfusion of poorly lung, pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas; - high attitude residence; - hypoventilation associated with obesity (Pickwickian syndrome); - hemoglobin variant with increased affinity for oxygen; - heavy smoking; - methemoglobinemia (rarely). 2. Due to inappropriate erythropoietin increase in - benign and malignant tumors of kidney, liver, central nervous sys- tem, uterus, ovary; - renal disease hydronephrosis, Vascular impairment, cysts. 3. Associated with Adrenocortical steroids or Androgens - adrenal hypercorticism; - virilizing tumors; - androgens used therapeutically. 4. Associated with chronic chemical exposure - nitrites, sulfonamides, other substances producing methemoglobin and sulphaemoglobin; - cobalt, shellac components, various alcohols. 5. Relative - “stress” or “spurious” polycythemia; - dehydration: water deprivation, vomiting; - plasma loss: bums, enteropathy. Erythrocytopenia: 1. Depression of bone narrow: leukemia, aplastic anemia, métastasés in bone marrow. 2. Hemorrhage.
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Clinical Blood Analysis 409 3. Hemolysis of erythrocytes. 4. Deficiency of iron.
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