waves from being carried into the middle ear properly–damage to the bones of the middle ear: sounds cannot be conducted from the eardrum to the cochlea
Types of Hearing Impairments•Nerve hearing impairment can result from:–damage in the inner ear–damage in the auditory pathways and cortical areas of the brain
Surgery to Help Restore Hearing •Cochlear implant: a microphone implanted just behind the ear that picks up sound from the surrounding environment–speech processor selects and arranges the sound picked up by the microphone–implant is a transmitter and receiver, converting signals into electrical impulses•Collected by the electrode array in the cochlea and then sent to the brain
Taste•Taste buds–taste receptor cells in mouth; responsible for sense of taste•Gustation: the sensation of a taste•Five basic tastes–Sweet - Sour – Salty – Bitter - “brothy,” or Umami
(a) Nerves in the tongue’s deep tissue (b) Taste bud’s location inside the papillae (c) Microphotograph of the surface of the tongue showing two different sizes of papillae
Smell•Olfaction (olfactory sense)–sense of smell•Olfactory bulbs–areas of the brain located just above the sinus cavity and just below the frontal lobes that receive information from the olfactory receptor cells•At least 1,000 olfactory receptors
The Olfactory Receptors
Somesthetic Senses•Somesthetic senses: the body senses consisting of the skin senses, the kinesthetic sense, and the vestibular senses–“soma”: body–“esthetic”: feeling
Somesthetic Senses•Skin senses: the sensations of touch, pressure, temperature, and pain–sensory receptors in the skin–gate-control theory: pain signals must pass through a “gate” located in the spinal cord
Cross Section of the Skin and Its Receptors
Somesthetic Senses•Kinesthetic sense: sense of the location of body parts in relation to the ground and each other–proprioceptive receptors (proprioceptors)–Proprioceptionis the senseof the relative position of neighboring parts of the body and strength of effort being employed in movement.
Somesthetic Senses•Sensory conflict theory: an explanation of motion sickness in which the information from the eyes conflicts with the information from the vestibular senses–results in dizziness, nausea, and other physical discomforts
Somesthetic Senses•The Vestibular Senses: Awareness of body balance and movement are monitored by the vestibular system. The vestibular senses (the sensations of body rotation and of gravitation and movement) arise in the inner ear; the sense organs are the hair cells that send out signals over the auditory nerve.
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- Fall '17
- Psychology, Weber, sensory adaptation, Corti