9 what are the functions of protein during food

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9) What are the functions of protein during food preparation? Hydration, denaturation/coagulation, enzymatic reations, buffering, browning 10) Define the following terms: a. Solubility: The ability of one substance to blend uniformly with another b. Precipitate: to settle or separate out of a solution Page 1 of 4
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c. Emulsifier: compound that possesses both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties so that it disperses in water or oil d. Complete protein: usually from animal sources; contains all essential amino acids in sufficient amounts for body’s maintenance & growth e. Incomplete protein: usually from plant sources; does not provide all amino acids f. Maillard reaction: reaction between a sugar and a protein resulting in formation of brown complexes g. Enzymatic browning: reaction in which an enzyme acts on a phenolic compound in the presence of oxygen to produce brown-colored products h. Denaturation: irreversible process where structure of protein is disrupted, resulting in partial or complete loss of function i. Coagulation: clotting or precipitation of protein in a liquid into a semisolid compound j. Enriched: modified by addition of certain nutrients at levels established by federal standards in order to replace those lost during processing k. Fortified: modified by addition of nutrients that were not present in original food l. Antioxidant: compound that inhibits oxidation, which can cause deterioration and rancidity m. Free radical: unstable molecule that is very reactive and can damage cells n. Phytochemicals: nonnutritive “chemical” in plants that is considered beneficial to health Chapter 15 & 18: Starches, Sauces & Soups 11) What are the two types of starch and how does the varying amylose content affect the texture of starch-thickened foods? Amylose & amylopectin; starches with higher amylose tend to gel, whereas higher amylopectin are considered nongelling. 12) What is starch gelatinization AND describe the different effects of sugar, acid, heating, and fat/protein on gelatinization? When the starch granules are heated in a liquid and increase in volume, viscosity, and translucency. Sugar can delay gelatinization because it competes with starch for water. Heating beyond the gelatinization temperature decreases viscosity. Stirring too much can cause the starch granules to rupture, therefore decreasing viscosity. Fat delays
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  • Summer '17
  • Tracy Grgich
  • o. dextrinization

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