→ Pharmaceutics Three types of dosage forms… 1. Enteral a. Tablets, capsules, oral soluble wafers, pills, time-released capsules/tablets, elixirs, suspensions, syrups, emulsions, solutions, lozenges, rectal suppositories, sublingual or buccal tablets. 2. Parenteral a. Injectable forms of medication, solutions, suspensions, emulsions, powders for reconstitution. 3. Topical a. Aerosols, ointments, creams, pastes, powders, solutions, foams, gels, transdermal patches, inhalers, rectal and vaginal suppositories. ● A variety of dosage forms exist to provide both accurate + convenient drug delivery systems. ● Extended-release tablets/capsules release drug molecules in the patient's GI tract over a prolonged period. Immediate-release dosage forms release all the active ingredient immediately upon dissolution in the GI tract. Extended-release dosage forms are normally easily identified by capital letter
abbreviations such as SR (slow release or sustained release), SA (sustained action), CR (controlled release), XL (extended length), XT (extended time) ● Extended release dose forms must not be crushed as this could cause accelerated release of drug from the dosage form. This also goes for enteric-coated tablets also are not recommended for crushing. ● Oral-disintegrating tablets dissolve in the mouth and are absorbed through the oral mucosa. Depending on the product, the dosage form may be dissolved on or under the tongue or in the buccal cheek pocket. ● Parenteral forms of drugs are administered via injection. The PH of the injection must be very similar to the PH of the blood to prevent the arteries and veins to become damaged. → Pharmacokinetics :What happens to a drug from the time it enters the body, until the time it leaves the body. → Absorption : The movement of a drug from its site of administration into the bloodstream for distribution to the tissues. Various factors affect the rate of a drug’s absorption. These would be how a drug is administered or it’s route of administration. These affect the rate and extend a drug is absorbed. This goes back to the three basic routes of administration: enteral, parenteral, and topical. Enteral: ● The drug is absorbed into the systemic circulation through the mucosa of the stomach and SI/LI. Drugs are absorbed from the intestinal lumen into the blood system and transported to the liver. Hepatic enzyme systems metabolize it and the remaining active ingredients are passed into blood circulation. ● Many factors can alter the absorption of drugs, including acid changes within the stomach, or presence/absence of food + fluid. Parenteral Route: ● Fastest route by which a drug can be absorbed. ● General term that means any route of admin other than the GI tract. ● Refers to intravenous injections which delivers the drug directly into the circulation.
- Summer '17
- Pharmacology, Drug toxicity, → Pharmaceutics, differences of drug administration