The metabolic rate essay .docx

Atp molecules are the energy currency in the

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molecules are invested into the system to promote these reactions to occur. ATP molecules are the energy currency in the metabolic systems and store large amounts of energy between the triphosphate chain. In these reactions, Glucose is first phosphorylated at the sixth carbon at the expense of 1 molecule of ATP, after which the D-glucose 6-phosphate formed here is further converted into D-fructose 6-phosphate. With the use of the second ATP molecule, the D-fructose 6-phosphate is again phosphorylated, this time to the first carbon, to yield D-fructose 1,6-biphosphate. At this point the 6 carbon molecule is ‘cleaved’ into two 3 carbon molecules, dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. The preparatory phase concluded by isomerising the dihydroxyacetone phosphate into a second glyceraldehyde 3-phophate. The energy gain of Glycolysis occurs in the payoff phase, where each of the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate is oxidised and phosphorylated by an inorganic phosphate to form 1,3- bisphosphoglycerate. The enzyme phosphoglycerate kinase is then used to transfer two high energy phosphates groups from the 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate to Adenosine Diphosphate
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(ADP) to form two ATP, one per molecule of 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate, leaving behind 3- phosphoglycerate molecules. The enzyme phosphoglycerate mutase catalyses the conversion of the 3-phosphoglycerate and 2-phosphoglycerate, a reversible shift of the phosphoryl group between the two forms. From here the enzyme enolase promotes removal of a molecule of water from 2-phosphoglycerate producing the molecule phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). The last step of glycolysis is the transfer of the phosphorate group from PEP to another ADP, catalyzed by the enzyme pyruvate kinase, through the use of K+ and either Mn2+ or Mg2+. The resultant molecule is pyruvate, the precursor for Aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Again due to two PEP molecule being broken down, another 2 ATP molecules are composed. The overall process of Glycolysis yields a net gain of 2 ATP molecules. Energy is also conserved during the payoff phase by employing the use of two electron carrier molecules of the reduced state Nicotineamide-Adenine-Dinucleotide ( NADH) per molecule of glucose. Initially for the runner, the pyruvate molecule would react under anaerobic conditions as the runner would not have sufficient oxygen levels to undergo aerobic respiration. When this occurs the pyruvate would follow the fermentation pathway yielding the formation of lactate. As time passes, however, the runner adjusts to the changing demand of oxygen and
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  • Summer '17
  • Fatty Acids, Adenosine triphosphate, ATP MOLECULES, fatty acid molecules

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