CCJ
Lecture 1 Notes

# Your parents get angry over little things unpopular

• Notes
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Your parents get angry over little things Unpopular with the opposite sex: I do not get along very well with girls I do not get along very well with boys Life hassles: My classmates do not like me Kaplan (1975) Self-derogation On the whole, I am satisfied with myself (true or false) I certainly feel useless at times (true or false) I’m inclined to feel I’m a failure (true or false) 4. Research Hypothesis (A theory leads to hypothesis; a theory contains many hypotheses) - a proposed relationship between two or more theoretical construct or variables OR - a tentative statement involving a relationship between two variables Deterrence/Rational Choice Theory Hypotheses : The death penalty should deter homicide Punishment should prevent future crimes Routine Activities Theory Hypothesis: Crime rates is higher when routines activities takes people away from their homes

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Crime can be prevented by reducing opportunities Variables: a characteristic that varies Independent (IV) : proposed influence; explanatory variable; predictor or cause or leads to Dependent (DV) : variation in this variable is a function of an independent variable; outcome variable; effect; consequence Examples of Hypotheses _ = independent ; italicized = dependent What is the independent and dependent variables in these sentences? 1. The greater the social disorganization in a community, the higher the rate of crime . 2. As one’s self-control gets stronger, the fewer delinquent acts on commits. What is the independent and dependent variables in these sentences? 1. As the unemployment rates in a community decreases, the community rates of property crime decreases. 2. As the discrepancy between one’s aspirations and expectations increases, one’s level of strain increases. 3. Crime is lower in those communities where the police patrol on foot . 4. SCOPE A weak theory is one that only accounts for a single behavior For example: a theory that only explains check forgery is very limited Therefore, a better theory explains many other criminal behavior THE CLASSICAL AND POSITIVIST SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT The Classical School Cesare Beccaria (Crime and Punishment) and Jeremy Bentham (Hedonistic Calculus) formed the foundation for classical criminology Criminal law should be more humanitarian (should we do away with the death penalty?) People have free will People seek pleasure and avoid pain (commit crimes to get pleasure) Crime is prevented as long as the punishment outweigh the benefit of the crime Definition of crime: legal Human beings are rational Crime is due to free will
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