An empirical practice paradigm opportunities existed

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an empirical practice paradigm, opportunities existed for transprofes- sional knowledge sharing and collaboration ð Walter, Nutley, and Davies 2005; Satter fi eld et al. 2009; Traube, Pohle, and Barley 2012; Bellamy et al. 2013 Þ . The second way that advancing the EBP movement involved adap- tation rather than innovation pertained to the content of the paradigm. Rather than having to formulate an orientation and template, a coherent philosophy and practice model had already been articulated in medicine. The task left to social work scholars was to adapt the content of EBM to the values and contours of social work practice. Moreover, by the late 1990s the profession of social work had accumulated a quarter century of collective knowledge around forging an empirical paradigm shift. In particular, there was an early and profound recognition that effectively advancing the EBP movement would require more attention to organiza- tional contexts and practical constraints. In sum, by the turn of the mil- lennium, we observe a profession that had amassed valuable experience, 30 | Social Service Review
was situated in the currents of a transprofessional movement toward evidence-based practice, and had a serviceable philosophy and practice model at its disposal. creation and application of a practice template Disagreement plagued both ECP and EBP in the articulation of a template for practice. Recall that practice models in both movements detailed a multistep process for vetting empirical research, integrating evidence into practice decisions, and self-evaluating individual interventions. The central locus of dispute in the ECP movement involved the third activity. 16 Schol- ars promoted vastly different plans for the role practitioners would take in self-evaluating their practice, ranging from conducting publication-quality single-subject designs ð Briar 1979, 1980 Þ , to using less rigorous designs that did not compromise treatment delivery ð Thomas 1978 b Þ , to refraining from evaluation activities ð Rosenblatt 1981 Þ . Moreover, nonspeci fi c curriculum standards, disparate enthusiasm for ECP, and disagreement over research education in schools added further complication: There is little agreement as to whether research education is aimed primarily at comprehension of published research, the use of research methods for evaluating individual professional practice, or participation in designing and implementing re- search that are more widely applicable ð Task Force on Social Work Re- search 1991, 25 Þ . Discrepant views of the role of practitioner-researchers, diffuse curriculum requirements, and variation in enthusiasm and focus of research training undermined the promotion of a single practice model that would serve as the standard for education and practice.

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