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development, but their lines and gestures are far from being predeterminedRegardless of social location, individuals are always free to act, sometimes in unexpected ways that change the course of the playAs a result of “doing gender,” people contribute to, reaffirm, and reproduce masculine dominance and feminine submissivenessBlack FeminismGender, sexual orientation, race, class, nationality, ability, and other factors all intersectPostmodern TheoriesFeminists must have some sturdy ground on which to unite, build coalitions, and tackle injusticeThe postmodern emphasis on fragmented identity, blurring of sex and gender boundaries, and gender skepticism won’t get gender theory anywhere when it comes to addressing issues such as the wage gap, eating disorders, or rapeSociology in the BedroomConnections may be found between the sheets and history, desire and science, how we do it and how it in turn organizeswhat we do, as well as with whom and with what meaningsAn excavation into the social construction of sexuality divulges a surprising amount of variation in what is considered normal bedroom behaviorSexuality in Other Times and PlacesAmong ancient Greeks, homosexual relationships were accepted and supposed to be patterned on an active-passive distinction-The active partner was supposed to be older or higher in status than the passive partnerOther cultures’ attitudes toward homosexuality are on a whole different level-Siwans of North Africa and the Keraki, also in New GuineaoPrefer homosexuality to heterosexualityEvery male is homosexual during his adolescence and then bisexual after heterosexual marriage, the limited straight sex keeps down the birthrateThe Social Construction of SexualityStarting from the view that sex itself is a social creation, sociologists tend to argue that humans have sexual plumbing and potential but no sexuality until they are located in a social environmentSexuality and PowerCatherine MacKinnon (1983)
-Argued that in male-dominated societies, sexuality is constructed as a gender binary, with men on top and women on the bottom (literally and figuratively)-Sexuality is the linchpin of gender inequality, an expression of male control-In a male dominated state, where men have the power to create the world from their allegedly more objective point of view, sex is rape and rape is sex: “Man fucks woman; subject verb object.”Adrienne Rich (1980)-Called sexuality in America a “compulsory heterosexuality”HomosexualityHomosexual – the social identity of a person who has sexual attraction to and/or relations with other persons of the same sexBy the late 1800s, “Homosexuality appeared as one of the forms of sexuality when it was transposed from the practice ofsodomy onto the kind of interior androgyny, a hermaphrodism of the soul”Coercion and direct force were replaced with more efficient forms of restraint: self-surveillance and what Foucault called normalization“There is no need for arms, physical violence, material constraints. Just a gaze. An inspecting gaze, a gaze which each