Secular Celebrations The major holidays are New Year's Day, 1 January; Liberation Day, 26 January; International Women's Day, 8 March; Labor Day, 1 May; National Heroes Day, 9 June; and Independence Day, 9 October. A farm with terraced fields near Kibale. Coffee, cotton, tea, and corn are among the most common agriculture exports. The Arts and Humanities Support for the Arts.
Most artists are self-supporting as there is virtually no state support. Small-scale, local initiatives take place, but it has been difficult to establish viable sectors because of the disruptions caused by long-term political conflict and economic decline. Literature. The development of literature is at an early stage. It has been held back by the years of civil war. Graphic and Performance Arts. Performing arts often are associated with different ethnic groups throughout the country. The State of the Physical and Social Sciences The physical and social sciences are generally under-developed as a result of civil instability and conflict and the development of other priorities centered on national reconstruction. Makerere University is still in operation but virtually all expatriate staff, once the backbone of the teaching staff, have been long gone. Little research is currently undertaken because of a lack of up-to-date books, journals, or computers. Bibliography Abid, Syed, ed. Uganda Women in Development, 1990. Allen, Tim. "Understanding Alice: Uganda's Holy Spirit Movement in Context." Africa 61 (3): 37–39, 1991. Antrobus, P. "The Empowerment of Women." Women and International Development 1 (2): 189–207, 1989. Bernt Hansen, Holger, and Michael Twaddle eds. Uganda Now: Between Decay and Development, 1988. ——. Developing Uganda, 1998. Bwegye, F. A. W. The Agony of Uganda, 1985. Dicklich, Susan. "Indigenous NGOs and Political Participation." In Holger Bernt Hansen and Michael Twaddle, eds. Developing Uganda 145–158, 1998. Furley, Oliver. "Uganda's Retreat from Turmoil?," Conflict Studies 196, 1986. Gertzel, Cherry. "Uganda's Continuing Search for Peace." Current History 89 (547): 205–228, 231–232, 1990. Harlow, Vincent, and E. M. Chilver, eds. History of East Africa, 1965.
Ingham, Kenneth. The Making of Modern Uganda, 1983. Jorgensen, Jan Jelmert. Uganda: A Modern History, 1981. Kabwegyere, T. B. The Politics of State Formation and Destruction in Uganda, 3rd ed. 1995. Kasfir, Nelson. The Shrinking Political Arena: Participation and Ethnicity in African Politics, 1976. ——. "Land and Peasants in Western Uganda: Bushenyi and Mbarara Districts." In Holger Bernt Hansen and Michael Twaddle, eds. Uganda Now: Between Decay and Development, 1988. Khadiagala, G. M. "State Collapse and Reconstruction in Uganda." In William I. Zartman, ed. Collapsed States, 1995. Livingstone, Ian. "Developing Industry in Uganda in the 1990s." In Holger Bernt Hansen and Michael Twaddle, eds. Developing Uganda, 1998. Marquardt, Mark A., and Abby Sabina-Zziwa. "Land Reform in the Making." In Holger Bernt Hansen and Michael Twaddle, eds. Developing Uganda, 1998.
- Spring '14
- Anthropology, Nilotic languages