Energy_Storage_Technologies.pdf

Operation these systems startup within 5 12 minutes

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Operation These systems startup within 5-12 minutes with a ramp rate of 30% of maximum load per minute [2]. Maintenance The maintenance requirements are similar to that of a standard combustion turbine natural gas plant of a similar size. 12
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Energy Storage Technologies Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Environmental Impact Since this technology produces emissions from combustion, there is an environmental concern especially compared to emissions-free devices. However, the level of NO x produced is below 5ppm [2]. Other Resources Summaries of this technology can be found in [2,7,8], with a more detailed treatment in [12]. Summary of Device Parameters The following table summarizes the available technoeconomic parameters for compressed air energy storage systems from a number of studies from 2000-2010. All monetary values have been adjusted to 2010 dollars. If a value is marked with “-” either the quantity was not found in the corresponding report or the way it was presented was inconsistent with the format used here. For example, the EPRI-DOE report gives total cost in $/kW or $/kWh, not a formulation that takes into account both, simultaneously. Source: Schoenung EPRI Gonzalez Schoenung Chen 2003 [5] 2003 [2] 2004 [3] 2008 [6] 2009 [7] Techno. Params. Roundtrip Efficiency [%] 73-79 65-85 57-64 - 70-80 Self-discharge [%Energy per day] 0 n/a - - small Cycle Lifetime [cycles] - - - - - Expected Lifetime [Years] n/a 30 30 - 20-40 Specific Energy [Wh/kg] - - - - 30-60 Specific Power [W/kg] - - - - - Energy Density [Wh/L] - - - - 3-6 Power Density [W/L] - - - - 0.5-2 Costs Power Cost [$/kW] 510-650 - 490-600 550 400-800 Energy Cost [$/kWh] 3.6-140 - 3.5-58 120 2-50 PCS Cost [$/kW] n/a n/a 270-580 - - BOP Cost [$/kW] 60 190 46-58 50 - O&M Fixed Cost [$/kW-y] 3.0-12 23-29 1.6-4.3 - - 13
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Energy Storage Technologies Flywheel Energy Storage 3.3 Flywheel Energy Storage Flywheels have been in existence for centuries, however, over the past few decades they have been considered as forms of bulk energy storage. A simple form of kinetic energy storage, these systems are extremely rapid in their response time and, with recent developments in bearing design, have been able to achieve high efficiencies for short durations of storage. Their disadvantages are that they have a high rate of self discharge due to frictional losses, and their relatively high initial costs. How it Works Flywheels store energy in rotating discs as kinetic energy in the form of angular momentum. To “charge” this device, energy is used to power a motor which spins the disc, and the disc remains spinning until the energy is needed. At that point the disc is allowed to turn a generator, which produces electricity. The speed of the flywheel increases during charge (adding energy) and decreases during discharge (losing energy). There are a few important aspects to flywheel design, one being the bearings. The bearings hold the shaft that connects the device to the motor and generator in place while allowing for rotation. Even the best of mechanical bearings create friction, and that friction results in a loss of energy as the flywheel spins. Magnetic bearings have begun to replace
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