Diabetes mellitus is a group of diseases characterized by hyperglycemia

Diabetes mellitus is a group of diseases

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Diabetes mellitus is a group of diseases characterized by hyperglycemia, resulting from defects in insulin secretion or insulin action or both. The two most common types of diabetes mellitus are type 1 and type 2. A diagnosis of diabetes mellitus is based on glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels, and two-hour plasma glucose during oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT). Chronic complications of diabetes mellitus are related to chronic hyperglycemia and include microvascular disease (e.g., retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy), macrovascular disease (e.g., coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral vascular disease), and infection. Metabolic changes contributing to complications include oxidative stress, shunting of glucose to the polyol pathway, activation of protein kinase C, formation of advanced glycosylation end-products (AGEs), and accumulation of hexosamines.
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Page 31 of 2 NSG 6006 Pre-Specialty Evaluation ©2017 South University 31 Advanced Pathophysiology Week 4 Musculoskeletal, Tendons, and Ligaments Types of Bones and Bone Cells The skeletal system includes the bones of the axial and appendicular skeleton in addition to the cartilages, ligaments, and tendons, referred to as connective tissue. Each has a specialized function in the body. The basic pathophysiology of a bone fracture is similar, regardless of the type of fracture. An injury to the bone results in death of bone tissue, which triggers a localized inflammatory response. It is important to point out that tumors arising from the skeletal system are not limited to bone cells, but can also include cartilage, fibrous tissue, and bone marrow. You will hear a variety of terms used to describe bone tumors, and you should be familiar with these terms. As Alterations in Musculoskeletal Function in Children The same basic concepts about adult musculoskeletal system can be applied to the child's musculoskeletal system, although there are some important points to consider. For example, non-accidental bone trauma must be carefully reviewed for a cause in a child that is not ambulatory because it may also be a sign of child abuse. Referral to a pediatric specialist should be considered in these instances. Cerebral palsy (CP) and muscular dystrophy (MD) will almost always be diagnosed during childhood. CP results from an ischemic brain injury. MD is a complex group of inherited disorders that cause skeletal muscle degeneration. Duchenne MD is the most common form in children. Tendons and Ligaments Tendons and ligaments are strong connective tissues that serve the purpose of normal body formation and body movement. They are mainly made up of collagen fibers that are bundled and have little blood supply. Tendons have sheaths that cover them for protection. Cartilage is present at the site of insertion of both tendons and ligaments to the bone.
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Page 32 of 2 NSG 6006 Pre-Specialty Evaluation ©2017 South University 32 Advanced Pathophysiology Week 4 Bone Formation- Metabolism Osteoporosis and Arthritis The Role of PTH, Calcitonin, and Vitamin D in Bone Formation and Metabolism PTH regulates both phosphates and calcium in the body by keeping calcium levels high (normal) and phosphate levels low (normal). This hormone is secreted form the parathyroid gland in
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