62 no 3 data cycles nhanes surveys a national

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Ethics in Information Technology
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Chapter 8 / Exercise 3
Ethics in Information Technology
Reynolds
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MMWR / November 22, 2013 / Vol. 62 / No. 3 data cycles, NHANES surveys a national representative sample. The technical details of the survey, including sampling design, periodontal data collection protocols, and data, are available online (). A total of 5,037 adults aged ≥30 years participated in the survey, and 951 were excluded for medical reasons or incomplete oral examinations. In this analysis, 343 edentulous participants were excluded, leaving a total of 3,743 participants, representing a weighted population of approximately 137.1 million civilian noninstitutionalized U.S. adults. The findings in this report cannot be compared with those of previous studies using NHANES data ( 9 , 10 ) because the case definitions and age range used in this analysis differed. All periodontal examinations were conducted in a mobile examination center by dental hygienists registered in at least one U.S. state. Gingival recession was defined as the distance between the free gingival margin and the cementoenamel junction; pocket depth was defined as the distance from free gingival margin to the bottom of the sulcus or periodontal pocket. These measurements were made at six sites per tooth (mesiobuccal, midbuccal, distobuccal, mesiolingual, midlingual, and distolingual) for all teeth except third molars. For measurements at each tooth site, a periodontal probe (Hu-Friedy PCP 2) with graduations of 2 mm, 4 mm, 6 mm, 8 mm, 10 mm, and 12 mm was positioned parallel to the long axis of the tooth at each site. Each measurement was rounded to the lowest whole millimeter. Data were recorded directly into an NHANES oral health data management program that instantly calculated attachment loss as the difference between probing depth and gingival recession. Bleeding from probing and the presence of dental furcations were not assessed. Periodontal measurements were used to classify participants as having mild, moderate, or severe disease by using standard case definitions for surveillance of periodontitis ( 4 ); total prevalence of periodontitis in the population was calculated by combining prevalence of mild, moderate, and severe periodontitis. Severe periodontitis was defined as having two or more interproximal sites with ≥6 mm attachment (not on the same tooth) and one or more interproximal sites with ≥5 mm pocket depth. Moderate periodontitis was defined as two or more interproximal sites with ≥4 mm clinical attachment (not on the same tooth) or two or more interproximal sites with pocket depth of ≥5 mm (not on the same tooth). Mild periodontitis was defined as two or more interproximal sites with ≥3 mm attachment and two or more interproximal sites with ≥4 mm pocket depth (not on the same tooth) or one site with ≥5 mm. Race/ethnicity was self-reported; for this analysis, three race/ethnicity groups, each with a sample size large enough to ensure statistically reliable estimates, were used: non- Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican-American.
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Ethics in Information Technology
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Chapter 8 / Exercise 3
Ethics in Information Technology
Reynolds
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