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Spasm- any sudden, involuntary contraction of one or more musclesCramp- a painful localized muscle spasm often named for its cause, such as menstrual cramps Repetitive Stress Disorders Repetitive Stress Disorders- also known as repetitive motion disorders, are a variety of muscular conditions that result from repeated motions formed in the course of normal work, daily activities, or recreation such as sports. oCompartment Syndrome- involves the compression of nerves and blood vessels due to swelling within the “compartment”, an enclosed space created by the fascia that separates groups of muscles. This can be caused by trauma, tight bandages or casts, or repetitive activities such as running. oOveruse injuries- minor tissue injuries that have not been given time to heal. Overuse tendinitis- an inflammation of tendons caused by excessive or unusual use of a joint. Stress fracturesMyofascial Pain Syndrome- a chronic pain disorder that affects muscles and fascia throughout the body. Caused by a muscle being contracted repetitively, is characterized by the development of trigger points, producing local and referred muscle pain. oTrigger points- areas that most commonly develop where the fascia comes into contact with a muscle
oReffered pain- describes pain that originates in one area of the body but is felt in another Rotator cuff tendinitis- an inflammation of the tendons of the rotator cuff. (often named for the cause such as tennis shoulder or pitcher’s shoulder) Ruptured Rotator Cuff- develops when rotator cuff tendinitis is left untreated or if the overuse continues. Sports Injuries Strain- is an injury to the body of the muscle or to the attachment of a tendon. Diagnostic Procedures of the Muscular System Deep Tendon Reflexes- are tested with a reflex hammer that is used to strike a tendon. Range-of-motion testing- a diagnostic procedure to evaluate jointmobility and muscle strength. Medications Antispasmodic- administered to suppress smooth muscle contractions of the stomach, intestine, or bladder Skeletal Muscle Relaxant- administered to relac certain muscles and to relieve stiffness, pain, and discomfort caused by strains, sprains, or other muscle injuries Neuromuscular Blocker- a drug that causes temporary paralysis by blocking the transmission of nerve stimuli to the muscle. FasciaFasciotomy- is a surgical incision through the fascia to relieve tension or pressure. Fascioplasty- is the surgical repair of a fasciaMyotomy- a surgical incision into a muscle