b.Employers use various techniques to justify their employment practices. i.Wal-Mart, for example, stated that the stores were independently owned, thusChapter:10 4
supporting their contention that there was no companywide policy or practiceof discrimination in placeii.Another technique used to justify differences in pay is the use of different jobtitles for same work.iii.Repeatedly, the courts have ruled that jobs that are “substantially equal,” regardless of title, must have equal pay.c.Women are discriminated against in employment on individual and institutional levels.i.Institutional discrimination includes screening devices designed for men, hiring preferences for veterans, practice of promoting from within based on seniority, and male-dominated recruiting networks.ii.One of the most blatant forms of individual discrimination is sexual harassment.2.Other forms of discrimination take place in housing, the military, and in sexual and reproductive rights.IV. THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF GENDER ROLES: CULTURAL SEXISMA.Cultural sexism: the ways the culture of society (norms, values, beliefs, symbols) perpetuates the subordination of an individual or group based on sex. 1.The belief that females are less valuable than males has serious consequences, such as gender-based abortions in India. B.Family Relations and Cultural Sexism1.From birth, males and females are treated differently,2.The toys that male and female children receive convey different messages about gender. 3.Household Division of Labora.Globally, women and girls continue to be responsible for household maintenance,and women are responsible for the majority of hours of unpaid labor.b.Boys and girls work within the home in approximately equal amounts until the age of 18, when the sex-ratio begins to change.c.The fact that women, even when working full-time, contribute significantly morehours to home care than men is known as the “second shift.” d.Three explanations for continued traditional division of labor (not mutually exclusive):i.“Time-availability approach,” consistent with structural-functionalism, claims that role performance is a function of who has time to complete the task. ii.“Relative resources approach, ” consistent with conflict theory, argues the spouse with the least power is relegated the most unrewarding tasks.iii.“Gender role ideology,” consistent with symbolic interactionism, argues that the division of labor results from traditional socialization and accompanying attitudes and beliefs.C. The School Experience and Cultural Sexism1.Textbooks and other instructional materials portray males and females stereotypically.2.Differing expectations and encouragement that females and males receive contribute to their varying abilities, as measured by standardized tests, in disciplines such as reading, math, and science.
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