Bilisoly_E_Final_Research_Week_7.docx

Affective interpersonal and impulse control patterns

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affective, interpersonal and impulse control patterns ultimately lead to repetitive antagonistic, disruptive and self-defeating experiences resulting in an inability and unwillingness to respond with flexibility and adapt to the normal changes of everyday life. PD’s are commonly found to coexist with substance abuse disorders as well as overlaps with other disorders with some PD’s being more likely to co-exist with some than others (Glenn, Johnson & Raine, 2013). Substance abuse disorders are highly comorbid with PD’s creating further challenges in an already
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CLUSTER B PERSONALITY DISORDERS 4 challenged cluster of PD’s. This paper examines the Cluster B disorders, etiologies, assessments, treatments as well as the effects of substance abuse. Antisocial Personality Disorder Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) describes individuals with a repeated and pervasive pattern of disregard and violations of laws and the rights of others (Glenn, Johnson & Raine, 2013). These individuals fail to conform to social norms and are often deceitful, manipulative, impulsive and fail to consider consequences for their behaviors making it difficult to learn from their mistakes (Emmelkamp, 2013). Further, these individuals are irresponsible, lack empathy and often have an inflated view of themselves. They engage in fights, assaults, mistreating other individuals and lack the ability to sustain consistent employment (Glenn, et. al., 2013). ASPD has the most overlap with psychopathy (Werner, Few & Bucholz, 2015). They can exhibit superficial charm, are manipulative for personal gain, a shallow affect and a deficit of fear (Glenn, et. al., 2013). In addition, ASPD is the most common personality disorder within the criminal justice system (Helps, Feigenbaum, & Fonagy, 2017). The primary features of ASPD include deceit and manipulation for personal gain (DSM-5, 2013). Individuals meeting the criteria for ASPD show no remorse for their actions displaying indifference towards another or even rationalizing hurting another (DSM-5, 2013). ASPD is associated with psychopathy identified by patterns of interpersonal manipulation, callous affect (CU), erratic lifestyles and a tendency towards aggression and violence (Alcorn, Gowen, Green, Swann, Moeller & Lane, 2013). In a sample of 10 female offenders, the process of fear-potentiated startle, finding distinct patterns of cognitive processing and fear reactivity between psychopathy and ASPD was examined. Psychopathy was associated with selective attention favoring goal-relevant
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CLUSTER B PERSONALITY DISORDERS 5 information whereas ASPD displayed a more distinct fear deficit as well as deficits in executive functioning (Glenn, et. al., 2013). Research has evidenced the etiology of ASPD identifying genetic and environmental as well as brain imaging to examine the relationship between ASPD and other psychopathologies (Glenn, et. al., 2013). Clinical neuroscience literature suggests a common link within these disorders, specifically, a disrupted striatal pre-frontal orbitofrontal circuitry is established where
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