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Emergency planning 4 items capturing an organized

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Emergency planning (4 items), capturing an organized plan in case of an emergency. Internalcontrol (5 items) that assesses the presence of mechanisms to evaluate if safety objectives areachieved. Benchmarking (2 items) that assesses if a company compares its safety performancewith other similar companies. In the original study, the dimensions’ Cronbach alpha rangedbetween .78 (communication) and .93 (managers’ attitudes and preventive planning, both).In the current study, the occupational safety experts’ screening removed eight of the 51 originalitems of this scale. We conducted an exploratory factor analysis and excluded 12 items. Theremaining 31 items were arranged in five dimensions: Worker’s involvement, with the same meaningas in the original study, which uses two items (e.g., “employees involved in creating guidelines forprocedures and instruction manuals”), a dimension that we have retained due to its importance inoccupational safety, despite being evaluated by only two items. Managers’ commitment, whichessentially reflects the extent to which managers and supervisors are committed to their workers’safety, manifested by their attitudes or behaviors and by written declarations concerning occupationalsafety, which uses 10 items (e.g., “managers consider that employees’ training is essential forachieving a safe workplace”). Safety management system (11 items), which captures the existenceof training plans (4 items) to develop worker’s competencies and skills in safety; evaluatescommunication (3 items) referring to the transferring of information to workers about risks in the87
workplace; incentives (3 items) that measure the extent to which the firm motivates workers toparticipate in activities relating to their safety; and evaluate the existence of periodic inspection (1item) to ensure effective functioning of the whole safety management system. One sample item ofsafety management system is “meetings periodically held between managers and workers to takedecisions affecting the work organization”. Control (3 items), which evaluates the extent to whichthe firm internally complies with safety procedures (1 item) and externally compares its safetyactions and performance with other firms (2 items) (e.g., “firm’s accident rates regularly comparedwith those of other organizations from the same sector using similar production processes”).Emergency planning (5 items), which captures the existence of an organized plan in case ofemergency (4 items) and control its implementation (1 item) (e.g., “firm has implemented itsemergency plan”). The Cronbach’s alpha of the five dimensions ranged between .75 (workers’involvement), and .92 (safety management system); the average variance explained ranged between.50 and .61; the standardized lambda parameters ranged between .64 and .94; and construct reliabilityranged between .75 and .92, confirming the convergent validity and the reliability of the scale.

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Occupational safety and health, safety leadership

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