Ion pairing opositely charged ions aggregate and

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ion pairing-opositely charged ions aggregate and behave as a single particle pi=iMRT 17.8 colloids tyndall effect- scattering of light by particles distinguish between a suspension and a true solution colloid- suspension of tiny particles in some medium jello stays together through electrostatic repulsion when a colloid is placed in an electric field, the dispersed particles all migrate to the  same electrode, thus all having the same charge destruction of  a colloid is called coagulation heating or adding electrolyte increases velocities of colloidal particles causing them to collide with enough energy so  that the ion barriers are penetrated
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03:14 Chapter 18 The Representative elements 18.1 a survey of representative elements representative elements Groups 1A to 8A S and p orbitals Transition metals Center of table filling d orbitals Lanthanides and actinides 4f and 5f metalloid semi-metals that exhibit some metallic qualities metallic character increases going down a group  metallurgy- process of obtaining a metal from its ore reduction of the ions to the elemental metal liquefaction gas cools as it expands 18.2 group 1A elements alkali metals- first column (starting with H) 18.3 the chemistry of Hydrogen colorless odorless gas with H2 molecules ammonia and haber process
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03:14 hydrides- binary compoun containing hydrogen ionic hydrides- hydrides combine with most active metals (group 1A and 2A) covalent hydrides- hydrogen combines with other nonmetals metals/interstitial hydrides metal crystals are treated with hydrogen gas migrate into the crystal structure to occupy holes 18.4 group 2A elements alkaline earth metals contain 2+ cations hard water-found in natural water supplies ion exchange- large molecues that have many ionic sites 18.5 group 3A elements ns1np1 increase in metallic character going down group 18.6 group 4A elements ns2np2 carbon and silicon: 2 most important elements some considered semimetals sp3 hyrbrizided, tetrahedral pi bonds 18.7 group 5A elements
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03:14 ns2np3 readily lose electrons to form cations 5 valence 18.8 chemistry of nitrogen N2 is so unreactive that it can coexist with most elements under normal conditions  without undergoing any appreciable reaction Triple bond Nitrogen fixation Haber process Denitrification Ammonia-NH3 18.9 chemistry of phosphorous 18.10 group 6A elements 2- anion oxygen 18.11 chemistry of oxygen most abundant ozone O3 bent with one double and one single bond 18.12 chemistry of sulfur frashc process- retreving sulfur from large deposists fo free elements and in widely  distributed ores 18.13 group 7A elements halogens ns2np5 low value for electron affinity of F small bond energy of F2 molecule high reactivities halide ions- H- 18.14 group 8A elements noble gases full orbitals
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03:14 Chapter 19 Transition metals and coordination chemistry
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