Final Exam Questions - Assignment #2.docx

Reinforcers which are deliberately managed

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reinforcers (which are deliberately managed reinforcers) to increase a behaviour may undermine the intrinsic motivation, such as love of the game. This has led to some individuals to suggest that tangible rewards should not be given to children to perform desired activities. For example: if parents give money to a child for reading, then the child will be less likely to “read for reading’s sake” 19. What is a CMO? Illustrate with an example. Conditioned MO (CMO): an MO that alters the effectiveness of conditioned reinforcers or punishers because of prior learning For example, a soccer player who imagines she is making a penalty shot in the finals, while practising penalty kicks at practice. The soccer player is administering a CMO to herself. The imagery game increased the reinforcing value of making the shot as a conditioned reinforcer, and increased the likelihood of focusing appropriately to make the penalty shot. 21 . How does a CMO differ from an S D ? Illustrate with examples that are not in this chapter. S D is a cue that tells you what to do to get what you already want. In contrast, a CMO temporarily changes what you want, and tells you how to get it. For example, a swimmer just finished a really hard practice and burned lots of energy and mom says “there’s a sandwich in my purse”. This is an S D for the behaviour of the swimmer to go get the sandwich. The statement told the player how to get what he already wanted. A swim coach makes a point system for number of laps swam. Points could accumulate to get free time at the 14 14
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end of practice. The points program increased the likelihood that the players would want to earn points, and it told them how to do so. 22. Summarize, from a behavioral perspective, four steps that a coach might follow to motivate athletes. In order to motivate athletic performance, coaches and athletes are encouraged to: (a) Arrange antecedents to prompt motivated behaviour (b) Manipulate MOs to maximize the effectiveness of reinforcers for motivated behaviour (c) Describe the environmental arrangements in appropriately stated rules prior to practices and competitions (d) And provide reinforcers following motivated behaviour Chapter 8 questions: 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 10, 11, 14, 19, 20, 22, 24, 26. 1. How might stimulus generalization have been involved in the application with basketball players described at the beginning of this chapter? Stimulus generalization occurs because at first the players mentally rehearsed the correct execution of “cutting off the baseline” with imaginary players. This correct execution of “cutting off the baseline” was then generalized to real life and the players were able to correctly use this defense strategy more against real players. 3. What is “conditioning sensing”? Describe an example other than conditioning seeing that is not in this chapter. Conditioned sensing: bringing some physiological activity associated with one or more of our senses under the control of a previously neutral stimulus Example: a student used to hear the same bell to signal the end of the school day from grade 1 to grade 12. Then one day the student was in the grocery store and heard that same bell sound. The 14 14
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