major impediment to his reading comprehension. The level of language that he can read without undue effort should not present any comprehension difficulty. Spend all reading instructional time focused on reading decoding and spelling skills . Reading comprehension strategies can be taught as oral comprehension strategies that can later be applied to more fluent and higher-level reading. Letter Identification 1.Teach the student the names of the letters. Due to his particular needs, try the following activities: Before teaching the names of the letters, give the student the opportunity to become familiar with the shapes of the letters by incorporating 3-dimensional letter models into games and activities. Some ideas for doing this include:
Recommendations: Basic Reading Skills p. 11 Mather, N., & Jaffe, L. (2002). Woodcock-Johnson III: Reports, Recommendations, and Strategies. New York: John Wiley & Sons. oMake up games for small groups of students to play using letter-models, matching letter models to each other, and matching them to bold, colored drawings of letters. oCreate activities in which the students make 3-dimensional letters such as making letters out of clay, then decorating, and baking them, or making letters out of dough, baking, and eating them. oProvide alphabet puzzles that have large, thick rubber or wooden letters that come out with their shapes intact. Have students both match letters with each other and fit letters back into their spaces. Teach only one to three letter-name associations a day, depending on the student‘s ability to retain them. At least once a day, review all previously learned letter-name associations through recognition (teacher says the name and student points to the letter) and identification (teacher points to the letter, student names it). Incorporate review into games when possible, such as playing Go Fish or Old Maid with letter cards. If the student has forgotten any, reteach them using an instructional technique that creates a stronger letter-name association than in the previous instruction. When teaching letter identification, start with uppercase letters. These are easiest for young children to discriminate and to learn to write. Introduce lowercase letters only after uppercase has been mastered. When teaching the student the alphabet, begin with the letters in his first name, and then his last name. Use these letters to demonstrate how to create and write simple words. Since the student is an older nonreader with more mature visual perceptual and fine-motor skills than most beginning readers, introduce lowercase letters first so that he may begin working with text as soon as possible. Because of the student‘s extremely poor short-term memory, it will probably be easier for him to learn the letter names in conjunction with their shapes rather than by rote in the alphabet song.