100%(2)2 out of 2 people found this document helpful
This preview shows page 121 - 127 out of 129 pages.
VSLinguistic relativity views: two languages may be so different from each otherthat their native speaker’s thoughts and experience is also different. The language shape our thoughts.E.g. « Gasoline drum » gives a feeling of danger, while « Empty Gas Drum » gives a feeling of safety.Sapir-Whorf hypothesisLanguages influences our experience and perceptions, meaning that differences between languages will be present on non-linguistic tasks.Extreme version: linguistic determinism, a person’s thoughts are determined by language Early support from Hopi Indian language does not have words or a conceptof time, but this was later proven false.Weaker version: a person’s thoughts are influenced by language.Midterm 2 PSYC 213
Social context of languageTo formulate his views on thoughts and speech, Vygotsky reanalazyed…Piaget’s egocentric speech : speech to oneself, that does not take the listener’s perspective into account (non-silent).Inner speech : speech to oneself as a stream of thoughts (silent). *resemble the conversation of two people who knows each other very well : no need to specify the subject and there’s a personal meaning for the words, rather than conventional. *important for the planning of cognitive operations.Zone of proximal developmentDefinition : the distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem-solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance.*draws attention to the social aspect of cognitive development.Midterm 2 PSYC 213
« What a child can do with assistance today is what he will be able to do himself tomorrow. »Midterm 2 PSYC 213
LiteracyDefinition: the ability to read and write; sometimes extended to include the metalinguistic ability to talk or write about text.Metalinguistic awareness: ability to talk about language itself without worrying about what it refers to.E.g. an illiterate person can’t answer to a syllogism (the white bear ex.)Implications of literacya)We see interpretations of texts as subjective results of mental processesb)Our language change when we become literatec)Words that refer to language itself (assert, dictate, remark, etc.) appeared much later in history than words about thinking.Consequences of print exposure ART (author recognition task) and MRT (magazine recognition task) predicted scores on cognitive skills measure even after IQ was taken into account. Midterm 2 PSYC 213
Conclusion: print exposure makes an independent contribution to cognitive skills, over and above IQ.Midterm 2 PSYC 213
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis and COLORSSupport for the hypothesisoBerinmo tribe members were worse to pick color from the blue-greenpair.oEnglish speakers were worse to pick color from the nol-worpair.Conclusion: speakers cannot access colors if the color boundary isn’t in their language. Language shapes the quality of color memory.Arguments against the hypothesisEnglish Language Speakers (11 words for color) were tested against the Dani tribe in Indonesia (2 words for color).