2 Because of the relative values the data classified can be ranked or ordered

2 because of the relative values the data classified

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2. Because of the relative values, the data classified can be ranked or ordered . 11
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Interval-Level Data Properties: 1. Data classifications are ordered according to the amount of the characteristic they possess. 2. Equal differences in the characteristic are represented by equal differences in the measurements. Example: Women’s dress sizes listed on the table. 11 Ratio-Level Data z Practically all quantitative data is recorded on the ratio level of measurement. z Ratio level is the “highest” level of measurement. Properties: 1. Data classifications are ordered according to the amount of the characteristics they possess. 2. Equal differences in the characteristic are represented by equal differences in the numbers assigned to the classifications. 3. The zero point is the absence of the characteristic 4. The ratio between two numbers is meaningful . 12
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Interval-Level > Ratio-Level Data z Conversion Possible z What Year is it? z Year 2010 / Year 1005 = ? z Compare to Baseline Year 2010 vs. Year 2000 = 10 Years Year 2005 vs. Year 2000 = 5 Years Why Know the Level of Measurement of a Data? z The level of measurement of the data dictates the calculations that can be done to summarize and present the data. z To determine the statistical tests that should be performed on the data 9
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Summary of the Characteristics for Levels of Measurement 13 z Nominal - Name z Ordinal - Order z Interval - Invalid 0 { Interspaced Numbers} z Ratio - Real 0 { Ratio Calculations} Levels of Measurement "Quick Tip" to Remember them NOTE: This is just an aid to memory; don't try to overthink it or take it too literally
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LYING with Statistics z Falsifying Data z Using Selective Portions z Changing Hypothesis after Data Collection is Completed Different from Descriptive or Investigative Statistics (Data Mining) z Misrepresenting Valid Data Examples of LYING 1060 1065 1070 1075 1080 1085 1090 1095 1100 1105 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Stock Price
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Examples of LYING – Only UP 1065 1070 1075 1080 1085 1090 1095 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Stock Price Examples of LYING - Only DOWN 1084 1086 1088 1090 1092 1094 1096 1098 1100 1102 Year 1 Year 5 Stock Price
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Examples of LYING - Actual Change 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Stock Price GOALS - Chapter 1 1. Understand why we study statistics. 2.Explain what is meant by descriptive 3. Differentiate between a sample and a population 4. Distinguish between a qualitative variable and a quantitative variable . 5.Describe how a discretevariableisdifferent from a continuousvariable. 6. Distinguish among the nominal , ordinal , interval , and ratio levels of measurement. 1
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