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Although it was originally neutral if the bell was

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Although it was originally neutral, if the bell was paired with meat (unconditioned stimulus) itacquired the same property as meat eliciting the salivation. The sound of a bell producedsalivation when presented alone. This is called conditioned response, that is, now the dog isconditioned to respond to the sound of a bell. Learning conditioned response involves buildingup an association between a conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus. When the stimuli,one is natural and the other one neutral are paired, the neutral one becomes a conditionedstimulus and hence takes on the properties of the unconditioned stimulus. Closely associatedwith classical conditioning as a vehicle for learning new behaviors are the phenomenon ofextinction, spontaneous recovery, stimulus generalization and stimulus discrimination.ExtinctionOnce a dog has learned to salivate to a bell, does this reflex continue to occur if the bell issounded for many trails without the meat (unconditioned stimulus). Pavlov found that withoutVISION INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT: BAPATLA
Page | 13ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOURUNIT-IImeat, the bell elicits less and less salivation on each trail and eventually stopped salivating oncefor all. This phenomenon is called as extinction.Spontaneous RecoveryBut they also found that extinction does not return the animal fully to the unconditionedstate. The mere passage of time following extinction can partially renew the conditioned reflex, aphenomenon is known as spontaneous recovery. And a single pairing of the conditioned stimuluswith the unconditioned stimulus can renew the conditioned reflex, which can be abolished againonly by another series of extinction trails. On the basis of such findings, Pavlov concluded thatthe conditioned reflex is not truly lost during the extinction, but is somehow inhibited, and that itcan be disinherited by such means as the passage of time or the recurrence of the unconditionedstimulus.Stimulus GeneralizationLearning research has demonstrated that individuals can respond to two separate stimuliin the same way on the basis of their similarities. Once the dog is conditioned to salivate tosound of a bell, the dog is also likely to respond to the sound of a buzzer sound which similar tothe sound of a bell. In work life, for example, coffee taster must learn to respond appropriately tovarious flavor and aromas in deciding whether to accept or reject samples of coffee beans. Oncethey have learned what an ideal tastes and aroma should be, they must judge and comparesamples to this standard. After conditioning, stimuli that resemble the conditioned stimulus willelicit the conditioned response even though they themselves are never paired with theunconditioned stimulus. This phenomenon is called generalization. The magnitude or likelihoodof a response to the new stimulus is correlated with its degree of similarity to the originalconditioned stimulus. Thus a dog conditioned to salivate to a 100-hertz tone also salivated to

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Term
Spring
Professor
niu
Tags
Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning, VISION INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT

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