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How do you know when the number of subjects in a qualitative study is adequate? When saturation of information (redundancy) and verification of information (further confirmation of hunches, relationships, or theoretical models) occurs. 38What is the research setting?The site or location used to conduct a study.39What are three common settings for conducting nursing research?natural / field setting, partially controlled, and highly controlled settings.40In which setting does descriptive and correlational studies, and all qualitative studies take place?a natural or field setting, which is a uncontrolled or real-life situation or environment. Note: the researcher does not manipulate / control / change this environment.CHAPTER TEN1What is measurement? Measurement is the process of assigning numbers or values to individuals' health status, objects, events, or situations using a set of rules.2What are direct measures? Direct measures involve determining the value of concrete things, such as height, weight, temperature, (accuracy and precision are important).3What are indirect measures?Indirect measures attempt to measure something that is an abstract idea, a characteristic, or a concept, such as pain, stress, caring, coping, depression, anxiety. Rarely, if ever, can a single strategy measure all aspects of an abstract concept.4What are the four levels of measurement? a.nominal (data is a category only - gender, kidney stone)b.ordinal (data is in categories that can be ranked - pain, dyspnea with ADLs)c.interval (data is in categories with equal numerical distances between them and no absolute zero point - temperature)d.ratio (data is in categories, has equal numerical distances and has an absolute zero point - weight)5What is measurement error?The difference between what you measured...and what the real or "true" measure of the variable is. The amount of error in any measure varies. There could be considerable error in one measurement and very little in the next. Measurement error exists in both direct measures (like blood pressure) and indirect measures (like pain).6What are the two types of measurement error?random error and systematic error7What is random measurement error?the difference between the measured value and the true value without pattern or direction (random). So the more times you measure the value (and average those values together)...hopefully the closer you are getting to the person's true value orscore (unless your random error rate is high). Example: Think about taking the NCLEX over and over...8What is systematic measurement error?the variation in measurement value from the calculated average is always in the same direction. For example: most of the variation may be higher or lower than the average that was calculated.Example: Why does my scale at home routinely weigh me at 150lbs in the morning....but the scale at the MD's office weigh me at 157lbs for an 0830 appointment?!?!